Supercontents A Lunch Community http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca <![CDATA[ A Huge Natural Disaster Wreaks Destruction Across The Philippines]]> Haiyan wrought havoc throughout the Philippines when
the storm began to gather steam on November 2, 2013. The storm quickly
expanded to well over 500 miles with sustained winds nearing 200 mph
and even higher gusts. The hurricane ripped through Albay
province just recently as unprecedented winds tore off roofs
and waves reached as high as 40 feet in some areas. Nearly 10,000
people are feared dead.
 
The Philippines put into place a National Disaster Risk Reduction
and Management Council to help prepare for natural disasters like Haiyan.
In late September, 2010, the Philippine Disaster Risk and Reduction
Management Act was promulgated to strengthen the disaster planning and
recovery capability in response to Typhoon Ondoy.  http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/08/hurricane-tracks/

Luckily, the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant was never fully activated. The Bataan 
Nuclear Power Plant is 45 miles west of Manila  atop volcanic activity.
 
Bataan seemed destined to become the first operating nuclear plant 
in Southeast Asia until the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster. Then, the
Philippine government mothballed the nuclear power plant.
 
The NOAA Hurricane database shows that Haiyan is a huge storm on its
global radar. In fact, Haiyan may be the largest storm in recorded
history! An August, 1931 flood and tidal wave off the Huang He River
in China killed over 3 million people.
 
Currently, the International Red Cross is managing aid to the
Philippines along with other charitable groups and major
organizations like CARE. Typical disaster aid kits include
the following:
o water and food rations
o emergency lighting, blankets and clothing
o sleeping gear
o American Red Cross Kits
o evacuation and fire supplies
o trauma and first responder kits
o pet emergency kits
o water bottles and potassium iodine tabs for radiation protection

Dr.Joseph S Maresca has authored a number of books. "College Vibrations"
and "Consumption, Savings and the Public Debt" are authored by him and
available on Amazon/Kindle.

http://www.amazon.com/College-Vibrations-Exp...ords=college+vibrations

http://www.amazon.com/Consumption-Savings-Pu...ies-ebook/dp/B00EPI1P2U
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<![CDATA[ Amazing Scientific Conjectures!]]> How to Time Travel is an excellent compendium
of modern physics theories and experiments
which predefine the various scientific conjectures, 
paradoxes and conditions precedent to traversing time 
in the past or fast-forward to the future. 
 
Time dilation experiments have been performed using
particle accelerators to show that clocks closer to
the earth run slower than clocks farther away from
the earth. Del Monte shows where backward time
travel is possible in theory. Adding negative
energy to mass causes it to move back in time.
 
Extremely large amounts of energy can prolong a
particle's life according to the author. One of the
problems involves harnessing extremely large amounts
of energy. The fusion technology may be a potential
candidate based upon the tremendous energy harnessed
with pellets in fusion experiments like the NIF laser,
ITER and others. In addition, the vehicle for travel
would be required to travel faster than the speed of
light.
 
Del Monte discusses a number of time travel methods:
(1) Faster than light time travel
(2) Traversable wormholes or shortcuts through space
(3) The idea that the Tippler cylinder needs to be infinitely long
(4) The Alcubiene drive says that there is no physics law
prohibiting space from expanding faster than the speed of light
except that negative mass must be part of the mechanism.
 
Del Monte explains that negative energy is associated with
negative mass. Furthermore, negative mass is the counterpart
of positive mass and that negative mass exhibits repulsive
forces. In addition, the author explains that a clock in
a strong gravitational field runs slower than in a weak
gravitational field. For instance, a clock on Jupiter
would run slower than on earth.
 
The idea that time travel backwards is possible begs the
question as to the present existence of objects from the
past. Assuming time travel to the past, the events would
appear as light images rather than solid objects because
images carry forward into the future not objects and
live persons. 
 
People live and die but the light images of a lifetime carry 
forward into the future and can be accessed. The practical 
problem is in capturing these light images which are the 
fingerprints of past people and past events. Forward time
travel or dilation is possible according to Einstein's theory
of relativity.
 
In closing, How To Time Travel by Louis A. Del Monte is an
important compendium of scientific thought juxtaposed to
some of the author's conjectures about time travel. The
subject matter of this book will be debated for years to come. 

First Published on Amazon
 
References:
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/artic...5496/Laser-fusion-Huge-
 
flash-released-energy-world-using.html
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<![CDATA[ Every Stem Cell Patient Should Be Aware of These Things!]]> The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) has provided guidance on the selection of stem cell protocols for patients and their medical providers. The Society has stated, for one thing, that stem cells for bone marrow are not interchangeable with stem cells for the brain. In addition, a single type of stem cell treatment cannot be used for
multiple applications.
.Image credit: Wikipedia Commons

Image credit: Wikipedia Commons

Blood stem cell transplantation is the most widely used for treating diseases of the blood and the autoimmune system. Bone marrow applications have been successful because the task at hand is to make more blood. In February 2010 the British company ReNeuron announced it had been approved to conduct a Phase I clinical trial of a neural stem cell treatment for stroke. The first embryonic stem cell-based treatment for acute spinal cord injury has been authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to move into Phase I clinical trials, according to the ISSCR.

The ISSCR is considering a recent task force recommendation that it review clinics for inclusion on its website. Upon receipt of a request, the ISSCR would ask the named clinic to provide the evidence that the treatment it offers has appropriate oversight and other standard patient protections. The ISSCR will publish online whether or not the clinics have provided that information. Implementation of this recommendation would provide patients and their medical providers with authoritative support for making decisions regarding treatment by specific clinics throughout the world.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has set forth guidelines for human stem cell research. In summary, the guidelines consist of an exhaustive definition of what exactly human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are. The NIH has defined human embroyonic stem cells to be “cells that are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage human embryos, are capable of dividing without differentiating for a prolonged period in culture, and are known to develop into cells and tissues of the three primary germ layers. Although hESCs are derived from embryos, such stem cells are not themselves human embryos.”

The NIH Stem Cell Unit (SCU) has acquired 21 previously approved and available hESC lines listed from BresaGen, Inc.; ES Cell International; Technion-Israel Institute of Technology; the University of California, San Francisco; the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WiCell Research Institute); and Cellartis AB. Stem cell research and implantation is an evolving field. Patients and their medical providers should consult with the ISSCR and the NIH SCU on specific stem cell applications, their efficacy, and the approved clinics for performing any transplantation being considered. This process of
informing patients on the efficacy of stem cell treatments and providers is long overdue.

First Published on Blogcritics

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<![CDATA[ New Frontiers in Soil Reconstitution and Energy]]> Mayor Michael Bloomberg is expanding food composting in all of the five boros in New York City. The expected benefits from food composting are considerable. The program is intended to cut down on trash. Since food is approximately 1/3 of all waste, the cost savings should be considerable. In addition, the new program should avoid ever transporting about 1/4 of the existing waste to city landfills.
 
A robust food composting program provides many other benefits. For instance, the food composting reduces or eliminates the need for chemical fertilizes. Composting promotes higher crop yields and reconstitutes the soil. The effort to compost revitalizes forests and ecologically delicate habitats. Composting reduces methane accumulation which is associated with landfill activity.
 
The most obvious applications for composting include roof farms which are spreading across New York City. In addition, high quality compost can be sold to enhance the activities of local growers. The City intends to have at least one or more composting plants online in the near future.
 
Composting has the potential to be a thriving cottage industry for people who are willing to do the research and cultivate the soil with reconstituted food waste. Decomposition of waste requires the proper balance between greens like leaves which are nitrogen rich and brown matter like wood chips which is carbon rich. In addition, the right amount of water and oxygen is necessary to aerate the pile so that decomposition proceeds at a brisk rate.
 
Initially, composting should be easier for owners of 1-3 family private houses. Over time, the City will phase the program from a voluntary one to a mandatory requirement. Ultimately, the composting effort may evolve into a potential energy source for city dwellers.
 
Mayor Bloomberg envisions the program evolving into a full scale effort over the next 4 years. Residents will receive special bins to recycle food wastes into usable compost. Once the program implementation details are ironed out, consideration will be given to making the undertaking a mandatory one for city residents.
 
First Published on Blogcritics
 
 
 
 
 
 
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<![CDATA[ What Should Be Taught In The Early Grades Beginning With Pre-Kindergarten]]> This article will focus on what children should be taught in

the first years of school which include pre-kindergarten,

kindergarten and the early grades in primary school.

A whole host of constituencies are in the process of preparing

children as young as 4 or 5 years of age for the new world of

formal schooling. Parents greet the advent of school for

toddlers with enthusiasm because taking children out of the

home for a half day or more means a respite from caregiving.
 

For most children, pre-kindergarten or even kindergarten means

an introduction to peers and a whole new experience of interaction,

compromise, argumentation and personal involvement beyond

watching television, playing outside or milling around the house.
 

Children need an introduction into a formal classroom setting

with the usual academic tools like building blocks, crayons,

educational toys, flash cards, arts and crafts and readings by the

teacher or local librarian.
 

Beyond the formal academics, children need a firm grounding

in the relevant behavioral dimensions for the learning

experience. And so, children may interact in small groups

in order to learn the fundamentals of cooperation, listening

skills, critical thinking and constructive argument or criticism.

To be successful academically, children will need to set

boundaries at home and with their relatives and friends

once they leave school. Part of the learning experience is

the assignment of quality homework to be done by all

students. To complete the learning cycle involving

assigned homeworks, children must set boundaries

with everyone outside of school.
 

Without boundary-setting, children cannot do homeworks

or complete the cycle of learning transfer which begins in the

classroom and is confirmed, as a result of formal in-class tests

as students progress through the lower grades.
 

Once students leave school and go home, they are confronted

with all sorts of demands on their time. These demands can

involve students in chores, shopping, medical appointments, outside

visitors, phone calls, text messaging and other things which

quickly take time away from doing homework to complement

the learning introduction begun in school.
 

And so, students need to rehearse the relevant behaviors which

are requisite for turning back a constant stream of requests which

tie-up their time and limit the opportunities to finish assignments

begun earlier in school. The relevant behavioral responses require

that students assert themselves at home so that there is time to

complete homeworks and projects.
 

Another important condition precedent is a quiet environment so

that learning and deep concentration can take place. Parents

should be instructed to set aside a quiet spot in the home so that

children can complete assigned homeworks unimpeded by

outside noise. In some cases, parents may find it easier to take children

to the local library or school library, if necessary.
 

Before academics can be attempted in any meaningful way, students

must learn to concentrate and work independently in quiet

surroundings. Then, they can think clearly about assignments in

all of their academic subjects.
 

Many school districts throughout the United States teach subjects

in English. In districts having bi-lingual students, the attainment of a

consistent curriculum content is more difficult due to language

challenges.


There are new technologies available to teach any language

quickly. For instance, Pimsleur guarantees a basic core fluency in just

10 days. Rosetta Stone has a good program of language instruction,

as well as others in the field. School districts need to utilize the most

up-to-date language teaching models so that all students can achieve

a basic competence in the early grades. Otherwise, students risk

getting to college with a very weak foundation to tackle the more advanced

studies.
 

In summary, the early grades from pre-kindergarten onward represent an

ideal time to introduce students to learning, the optimal setting for

learning, boundary setting and the fundamentals of the host language.

With the passage of time, students may lose the opportunity to learn these

life skills comprehensively. The stakes are high at the outset and the

passage of time only makes the task of teaching the basics harder and more

expensive to achieve.

Credits: First Listed on Blogcritics

 

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<![CDATA[ A Good Primer On The Food Crisis]]> ISBN      1842902415



On Measuring Global Food Crisis-A Multivariate Modelling Approach by

Dr Parvesh K. Chopra discusses the food model inputs, processing and

outputs within an overall mathematical and multivariate statistical superstructure.

The outputs of the model are critical food crisis factors, multiple causal pathways,

the contribution of global agriculture and food systems, food demand side forces,

food supply side forces, food supply side factors, global agricultural market failures

and public sector interventions.

 

Dr. Chopra discusses the difficulties inherent in keeping pace with the increasing

global demand for food. Global agricultural markets suboptimize or fail according to

the author for a variety of reasons. For instance, the existing food production tends

to be an oligopolistic structure constrained by multi-national agribusiness, food

retail giants, a lack of transparency in food markets, unfair competition and

distortion in the trading of food. Similar observations are made in Food First

by Lappe'.
 

Dr. Chopra discusses the need to change diets to correct obesity trends.

One of the necessary changes is eating less beef in favor of more fruits

and vegetables which require fewer resources to grow and the use of

less grain. A modified Mediterranean Diet is closer to the ideal with

an emphasis on fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, water and small

portions of lean beef.
 

Dr. Chopra discusses a trend toward urbanization; wherein, large masses

of people must be fed within a predefined land mass. Historicallly, this

problem was dealt with by increasing the supply of organic food through

"Victory Gardens" under President Truman. Today, neighborhoods

throughout NYC are experimenting with "Roof Farming" in order to

bring cheaper organic foods into the inner cities.
 

Dr. Chopra discusses increased mortality rates for children under 5 years of age

who are undernourished and underweight in South Asia and the Sub-Sahara Africa.

The author doesn't say so; however, technologies; such as, water desalination

may be utilized along the water boundaries in areas of Africa which abut the Atlantic

Ocean, Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Water desalination is closer

to commercial feasibility with the advent of solar energy to fuel the desalination plants.

Another challenge is to build enough pipeline infrastructure to transport the water on the

African continent.
 

On Measuring Global Food Crisis-A Multivariate Modelling Approach by

Dr Parvesh K. Chopra is an important work on the economics of dealing with

food scarcity issues globally. The author discusses important negations which

restrict global advancement due to the oligopolistic structure of the global food

producers. Historically, there have been solutions directed toward communities

growing their own food to deal with scarcity and high pricing. In addition, the

wealthier countries could help move this process forward by contributing

more expertise, food and tax revenues to deal forthrightly with world hunger issues.
 

Food production has practical implementation issues in advanced countries like

China. Historically, earthquakes and flooding have been complicating factors for

local industry in China. In addition, there has been difficulty in migrating the knowhow

from the coastal areas into the rural areas and yurts in the inner parts of China.
 

Clearly, Dr. Chopra's analysis must be customized to take into consideration

non-standardized approaches toward food production in countries having

constraining factors which limit or make more difficult the production of food

for the masses. Another important source of food comes from the oceans.

Seafood is a huge potential supply area-particularly for South Asia and the

boundary areas of Africa. To fully exploit this option, ocean dumping must

be well controlled in order to protect the integrity of the oceans for food

production.

Credits: First Published On Blogcritics

 

 

 

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<![CDATA[ EVs Have A Future in NYC]]> Mayor Bloomberg has decided to build an extensive infrastructure of

electric vehicle charging stations throughout the boros of NYC.

Essentially, parking spaces would be set up to accommodate

charging electric vehicles. There are powerful trends driving this decision.

For instance, electric vehicle (EVs) batteries are undergoing a significant learning

curve as did the MOS/LSI chips with electronic calculators. Now EVs are cheaper

to drive than gas vehicles since electricity costs less per driver mile than

gasoline.

Throughout this century, oil supplies will be depleting and the practicality of

EVs will be even more evident. Besides being more cost effective, EV charging

at parking spaces will provide a much needed economic boost to neighborhoods

throughout the boros.

Sales of plug-in vehicles have been growing steadily in recent years as the

population in the United States gets larger and the retiree population begins

to explore cheaper alternatives to the gas guzzlers now on the road.

Since more people are expected to adopt EVs as a viable alternative in

the coming years, the electronic neighborhood infrastructure must be

put into place to service the tremendous demand. In addition, EVs are

cheaper to maintain since they are lighter with a simpler design for

access by mechanics.

Power generating companies like overnight charging of electric

vehicles. The reason is that the overnight charging stabilizes the

distribution system so that the load is not experienced all at one time.

There is a dual benefit for consumers. The migration to EVs will

begin to reduce the demand for gasoline thereby lowering gas prices

proportionately. In addition, battery electrics require very little

servicing beyond tires and wiper blades.

There is even a benefit for consumers in the aftermath of major

storms. As seen with Hurricane Sandy, distribution gas outlets

were down for weeks after the storm while electric power was

restored on a more timely basis.

In addition, gasoline is flammable at the fill-up station.

This is the reason motorists are asked to shut off their running engines

while filling up. In addition, patrons are asked not to smoke while

filling up in order to reduce the likelihood of explosions at the pump.

Clearly, the safety advantages of EV charging at parking spaces

are vastly improved over the dangers of filling up at the gasoline pump.

Improvements to the solar energy technology this century will make

EV fill ups at parking spaces even cheaper because the energy source

(the sun) is virtually costless and limitless.

Electric vehicles are here to stay. The cost benefits and ease of

maintenance far outweighs the conventional gas guzzlers at the

gas pump and repair service stations. Mayor Bloomberg's

decision to go ahead with EV infrastructure construction at parking

spaces is farsighted and clearly in the public interest.

Credits: First Published on Blogcritics

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<![CDATA[ Dr. Jan Tinbergen Calls For An Updating of Scientific Arguments in His Nobel Lecture]]> Dr Jan Tinbergen's (April 12, 1903 - June 9, 1994) work in the areas of economics, operations research and econometrics has important implications for policymakers today. Dr. Tinbergen was a Dutch economist and co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics ('69). His work was honored "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes". This article will explore his call to action to update the scientific arguments in support of the various economic systems which operate around the globe today.

In his Nobel Lecture, Dr. Tinbergen called for an updating of scientific arguments in the ongoing competition between various economic systems. In today's world, the scientific arguments for capitalism must undergo an evolution in light of events like the Great Recession of '08.

The scientific arguments in favor of Gosplan have been marginalized by the dissolution of the old Soviet Union. Lastly, the scientific arguments in favor of the European socialism must be refined in light of the high unemployment in areas of Europe and in pockets throughout the United States.

A period of course correction is needed for capitalism post '08. The correction must deal with stock market excesses in things like derivative transactions, tighter margin requirements and enhancements to the Uniform Commercial Code. In addition, budgets need to be brought closer into balance by keeping debt within a rational proportion to the overall size of the economy and the GDP. Excess consumption taxes may be utilized to collect more revenue and redirect consumer spending into products and services that are vital to everyday subsistence.

On the positive side, the American model of capitalism is bolstered by the value of our technology as set forth substantially in the Patent Office. In addition, our huge stock of energy resources in coal, natural gas, oil, coal-gasification processes, solar energy, wind energy and budding fusion technologies are seen as highly desirable by our trading partners.

The course correction for the European socialist economies requires a tighter management of debt together with keeping spending within rational limits in relation to the GDP. In some of the more difficult cases, debt might require a reclassification into longer term instruments. Whichever course is selected, socialist economies must aim for containing debt within tolerable limits as confined by the size of their economy and the GDP.

The course correction for Russia and its constituent republics is not as easy to accomplish. Essentially, there is a great divide which loosely determines trade relationships in the former Soviet Union. The economies West of the Ural Mountains are influenced by Europe; whereas economies East of the Urals are within the sphere of influence of Asia.

China has a similar problem in advancing economic activity. The coastal regions are more advanced technologically and educationally; whereas, the inner regions are less technologically sophisticated and more oriented toward agriculture. The challenge for China is to integrate these seemingly different cultures both technologically and educationally.

American entrepreneurs have great opportunities for articulating and solving the economic challenges to Russia, its republics and China. A major asset in overcoming these challenges is American management knowhow, accounting systems, auditing methodologies and the introduction of new products and services.

All economic systems need to take advantage of global trade as a tool for expanding their economies. Trade wars tend to contract the elliptical Offer Curve while freer trade tends to provide for a more expansive Offer Curve.

Currency wars have downsides too. The basis of domestic and foreign trade is essentially the inherent value and uniqueness of the good or service to the buyer and not solely the currency. i.e. iPods, 3D copiers, HD TV, Smart Homes

For instance, a Chinese student seeking to go to an American engineering or medical school is interested in receiving a technologically up-to-date education. The payment for the education in yuans or dollars is not the sole reason for choosing an American college or university. Essentially, the Chinese student seeks tremendous value in the education and not per se the U.S.currency although currency valuations do fluctuate.

For the first time in history, new products and services can be delivered utilizing "Green Technology" to limit adverse weatherization and other negations associated with the older and inefficient methods of production and energy consumption.

All economic systems need to take advantage of global trade as a tool for expanding their economies. The above arguments comport with Dr. Tinbergen's call for updating the scientific arguments which proponents have for choosing from amongst the various global economic systems. Dr. Tinbergen does not state that one system is better than another. He simply calls for an updating of the arguments in favor of each system in his Nobel Lecture. The goal of updating the scientific arguments seeks to make the global economic systems work better by themselves and in cooperation with each other during the course of domestic and international trade.

Credits: First Published on Blogcritics

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<![CDATA[Basil and Spice Articles of Dr. Joseph S. Maresca]]> http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/Lists-822-3168-Basil_and_Spice_Articles_of_Dr_Joseph_S_Maresca.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/Lists-822-3168-Basil_and_Spice_Articles_of_Dr_Joseph_S_Maresca.html Tue, 1 Jan 2013 16:27:55 +0000 <![CDATA[ Higgs Boson Explained]]>
Carroll describes the Higgs Boson particle as a vibration around a steady value everywhere throughout the universe rather than a vibration around zero. The Higgs Boson particle has the potential to release energy like a ball rolling down a hill. Once fields are pushed from the preferred state, they are given potential energy.

Left on their own, Higgs Boson particles vibrate and dissipate energy by transferring it to other fields according to the author. The strength of weak interactions is 246 GeV; whereas, the Higgs Boson field sits at the lowest energy state on the bottom of a pendulum arc.

The author suggests creating Higgs Boson particles by detecting particles they decay into from a steady state. The objective of modern science is to prove where the Higgs Boson particles originate. Without Higgs Boson, scientists could not fathom how elementary particles have mass at all.

To date, scientists have found combinations of quarks and gluons that smash together to form the Higgs Boson particle. Once Higgs Bosson is created, the particle gives mass to other particles which created it. The author explains that the Higgs Boson particles are created at high energies. Space and time are known to change at high velocities according to the theory of relativity. Time slows down and lengths contract along the direction of motion.

Carroll shows how Dr. Richard Feynman described bosons geometrically. Forces carrying bosons are depicted with wavy lines. Fermions are depicted with solid lines and the Higgs Boson particle is shown with a dash. The Feynman geometry
of bosons looks a bit like the characters in Morse Code.

Dr. Feynman showed diagrammatically how multiple gluons feed into a quark with a Higgs Boson as an output. Higgs Boson particles travel less than a billionth of an inch between their origination and decay. The process of proving how they exist and disintegrate is a continuing challenge for scientists which is limited by the fact that matter can neither be created nor destroyed.

Particle at the End of the Universe is an important scientific work which explains current research findings on the Higgs Boson particle, as well as the scientific challenges inherent in proving the existence of the particle and the decay mechanism.]]>
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<![CDATA[ Preparing for Catastrophic Events and Recovering After They Hit]]> This article will cover recovery aspects which communities and local governments should look to in order to restore residential homes and commercial businesses in the post Hurricane Sandy period and for future exigencies.

In the storm surge of Hurricane Sandy, the winds impacted areas such as  New York Harbor, Staten Island, Queens, and Brooklyn. The hurricane lifted the sea and piled water onto the nearby land areas. The great tides created shear forces that ripped through neighborhoods and reduced the local housing and infrastructure to rubble.

Local, state, and federal agencies are working to find temporary housing, food, medical care and other necessities until the people impacted are able to settle into permanent housing. Entities like the Red Cross are providing for food and temporary shelter together with local charities and federal agencies like FEMA. Property insurers are involved for people who have residential home and major flood insurance.

There are ways to reduce the impact of a storm surge on people. For instance, parks, playgrounds, tracks, tennis courts, and ball fields could be put into place within ocean proximity instead of residential and commercial buildings which create difficult and expensive evacuation and disaster recovery planning issues.

In addition, zoning laws and building codes may changed for beach areas which abut major waterways. These codes could provide for the use of mobile homes and manufactured housing which is easier to install and less costly to maintain and insure.

Clearly, multi-million dollar structures should be placed farther away from major waterways. People could utilize public storage facilities located inland for more valuable personal possessions in the event of major hurricanes, storm surges or other catastrophic events.

In addition, marsh lands could be employed as boundaries around communities and valuable commercial real estate which abut a major waterway or ocean. Sand dunes may be upgraded with geotextile tubes covered with sand to protect beach areas impacted by hurricane force winds and storm surges.

In rural and recreational areas which abut oceans, hurricane storm shutters may be employed to protect windows from great winds.  Storm rated shutters are made from high quality woods like mahogany.

These shutters have unparalleled strength and protective value. There is a brace between the top of the window frame and the ground for single family dwellings. The wind shear hits the brace, the wind and rain disperse and the windows are protected from breakage.                                     

Seawall barriers or units may be used to enhance protection against wind and wave damage.
These barriers are concrete structures that are reinforced with steel and adapted for use in a variety
of applications which exist to preserve and maintain properties which abut waterways.  There always is a need for an improved type of a seawall barrier that can be readily  positioned on a shoreline to retard or prevent erosion thereof.                                                                       

Dam safety is another important issue for local communities during storms. The problem involves high wind, overturning moments and the mitigation of flood damage  local to dams.

Dam reinforcement issues include providing for overturning moments, adequate tensile strength and stability of the concrete, as well as shear friction issues and the compressive load of the structure itself. The shear friction issues may include the concrete surface as well as the shear resistance of the reinforced steel. Classically, Euler's formula is employed for buckling issues in the structural evaluation.  

Each time a major hurricane, flood or even an earthquake event happens, the existing municipal and  industrial contingency and disaster recovery plans should be upgraded in light of the experience gained during the catastrophic event. In addition, home owners and commercial establishments should work with their insurers and with FEMA in order to get funding to rebuild their homes and businesses. Sometimes, locating homes inland may be a better long term solution over simply rebuilding structures in harm's way.

Credits : First Published on Blogcritics with link at: (Full Article)
http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/a-maj...c-recovery-program-for/

References:

http://www.disaster-recovery-guide.com/
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/contingency-planning.html
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=dam+prep...urricanes&FORM=IGRE   Drains
http://www.usbr.gov/ssle/damsafety/Risk/Best...eButtressDams201108.pdf   Euler
http://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=122089
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Compress...oncrete&FORM=RESTAB
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Tensile+...+Tables&FORM=RESTAB
http://www.usbr.gov/ssle/damsafety/Risk/Best...eButtressDams201108.pdf
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=dam+over...g+moments&FORM=IGRE
http://www.patents.com/us-4482269.html   seawall barriers
http://www.timberlane.com/ppc/storm-shutters...oy5yp0rMCFYqZ4AodIUcAUA
http://geosyntheticsmagazine.com/articles/0208_f2_coastal.html   dunes
http://www.fema.gov/apply-assistance
https://www.nyredcross.org/?nd=about_520w49
http://www.azchampion.com/              ]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-A_Major_Catastrophic_Recovery_Program_for_Events_Like_Hurricane_Sandy_by_Dr_Joseph_S_Maresca-822-1842374-229951-Preparing_for_Catastrophic_Events_and_Recovering.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-A_Major_Catastrophic_Recovery_Program_for_Events_Like_Hurricane_Sandy_by_Dr_Joseph_S_Maresca-822-1842374-229951-Preparing_for_Catastrophic_Events_and_Recovering.html Sun, 18 Nov 2012 05:07:00 +0000
<![CDATA[ Grow Your Own Food On The Rooftops]]> contradictory inherently. Nonetheless, the idea of
roof farming is springing up in places like the boros
of New York City.

Brooklyn Grange is a roof farm located on the rooftop of a
building on Northern Boulevard in Long Island City, Queens.
The chief farmer is a man named Ben Flanner. He grows produce
on a green roof system that used to be a flat roof that reached
nearly 160 degrees at the height of the summer heat.

Now, the roof is much cooler and money is saved in cooling the
building. This is in addition to the value of the produce grown on
top of the roof. There is also extensive roof farming in Brooklyn,
New York. A brand new affordable housing complex is planned
for the South Bronx. The complex will host a huge rooftop farm.
The greenhouse will reuse heat from the residential
portion of the building and harvest rain water from the greenhouse
roof.

Roof farming has big advantages. First, food can reach
its market quicker with less transportation costs and
spoilage. Second, local people can be employed to
grow the food. The normal supply chain and marketing
channels are bypassed so that food is homegrown and
sold directly to consumers locally.

In essence, this idea is the ultimate in farm
decentralization, as opposed to the concept of a
complex food conglomerate. Additionally, there
is a huge demand for locally produced food.
Typically, celery, tomatoes, eggplant and peppers
are grown in the environment of a roof farm.

Neighborhood residents are the most likely
consumers in close proximity to roof farms.
There are other parties who need local produce.
For instance, local restaurants, food franchises,
supermarkets, schools, hospitals, nursing homes,
child care centers and grocery stores are just a few
of  the constituencies who could benefit from immediately
available fresh neighborhood produce.

The thermodynamics of converting wasted heat energy
to reusable energy is available quite easily. Roof farms
simply locate near a bakery, cleaners, pizza store, large
building or local brewery since these establishments tend
to generate a lot of wasted heat from their continuous operations.

For example, a bakery or pizza shop ventilation system transfers
heat to a thermal fluid.  The system uses this heat as an energy
input to heat or to store water for use in bathrooms, dishwashing,
or heating residential or commercial spaces.

Like the Victory Gardens under President Truman, these rooftop
greenhouses will increase the supply of food for the poor, as well
as middle class families. The result will be better health outcomes
from eating fresh food, as well as a reduction in prices due to the
increased supply. In addition, rooftop farms can contribute toward
gainfully employing local people living in the inner cities.

References:
1. http://www.woodstoneideas.com/green-integrat...ilding-system/overview/    

2. http://www.ny1.com/content/top_stories/12167...op-farm-opens-in-queens   

3. http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=%2broof+...+brooklyn&FORM=RCIR

4. http://gothamist.com/2009/09/18/rooftop_farming_in_the_south_bronx.php

5. http://brooklynology.brooklynpubliclibrary.o...II-Victory-Gardens.aspx


Article first published as <a href='http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/inner-city-roof-farming/'>Inner City Roof Farming</a> on Blogcritics.

Article first published as <a href='http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/salon...rvices-and-precautions/'>Salon Beauty Services and Precautions </a> on Blogcritics.]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Inner_City_Roof_Farming-822-1836745-228656-Grow_Your_Own_Food_On_The_Rooftops.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Inner_City_Roof_Farming-822-1836745-228656-Grow_Your_Own_Food_On_The_Rooftops.html Fri, 28 Sep 2012 01:27:49 +0000
<![CDATA[ Rising Sea LEvels A Problem Or Not]]> The scientific community is debating whether or not global warming is happening at a faster rate or that the ice mass is in a steady state balance. The other
enormous question is what to do about global warming and its potential for a downside. This article will explore the dynamics of polar ice melts, current trends and future strategies to adjust to global warming and the delicate ecological balance which exists in the arctic regions.

Stronger ocean currents are thought to lie under the West Antarctica Ice Shelves because of the melting of huge amounts of polar ice. Significant and growing cavities formed beneath the ice shelf itself. These cavities appear to allow greater pockets of warm air and the surrounding water to melt more quickly.

The Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf is incrementally sliding into the sea at about 3 miles per year. The phenomena involves sea water which appears to boil right to the surface. The key research question concerns present and future implications for the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf melting.

The implications for the melting of the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf include damage to the industrial infrastructure in the area, as well as the delicate ecology of aquatic life and support systems. In addition, the case for the electric cars strengthens once a greater risk for drilling arctic oil can be established. The case for placing caps on carbon emissions also strengthens once a major unexpected disaster happens.

Extensive oil drilling in the arctic regions may have an impact on the delicate ecological balance of aquatic life unless precautions are taken to preserve the nutrient rich water and the transition zone between deep water and mixed surface layers. Water which is rich in nutrients rises from deeper levels to replace the surface water that has dissipated. In addition, arctic drilling may impact tipping points that could unleash huge pockets of ice and water on an
unexpected basis.

In addition, the safeguarding of the land portion of the arctic regions requires that companies get permits to protect the land and restore it to an ecological balance. Generally, the protections should inhibit oil spills, prevent ground water contamination, have minimal impact on ecological tipping points and require the proper disposal or reuse of wastes.

The energy industry has put forward the argument that  cold water temperatures and seasonal arctic ice
could help contain oil spills and make the cleanup easier and less risky due to the natural containment barrier of the ice itself. The industry needs to do more than just offer an argument for containment. It needs to keep production quotas at a reasonable rate instead of running equipment at over 100% capacity.

More frequent testing of the underwater blowout preventers is another popular option which has come out of the industrial learning curve from the BP oil spill. In addition, remote controlled submarines, robotic divers and human divers may be employed to repair the underwater infrastructure if the blowout preventers fail to operate as intended. Any piece of mechanical equipment carries with it a mean time between failures for critical parts.

Routine maintenance can be performed on an anticipatory basis to replace equipment components in advance of the predicted failure. In the worst case scenario, the company can apply dispersant underwater at the source of an oil spill. Application of dispersants underwater will require advanced government permits before the commencement of any projects. Methane is yet another complication for oil drillers.

Methane hydrate fields should be well - mapped by oil companies and the Minerals Management Service, the industry regulator. In addition, the Minerals Management Service must conduct its own independent studies of methane hydrate fields before any government entity awards drilling permits.

Considerable industrial precautions are necessary because the underwater nutrients are responsible for supporting the large aquatic animal kingdom and ecosystems in these Arctic areas. The effectiveness of upwelling and its ability to serve as an ecosystem to support valuable sea life depends upon the comparative depth of the thermocline which lies between the deep water layer and the mixed surface layer.

The mixed layer hovers adjacent to the surface area where the temperature is roughly comparable to the surface water. In the thermocline area, the temperature is demonstrably lower. It varies from the mixed layer temperature to the freezing deep water temperature. The thermocline represents an important transition zone between the deep water layer and the mixed layer.

The nutrients are responsible for supporting the large aquatic animal kingdom and biological ecosystems in these areas. The effectiveness of upwelling is in its ability to serve as an ecosystem to support sea life by supplying vital nutrients. This process depends in part upon the depth of the thermocline which lies between the deep water layer and the mixed surface layer.

Steady state mass balance appears to be occurring on the eastern Antarctic coasts. That is ; ice is not being lost from the massive shelves there. Previously, scientists believed that large amounts of ice were melting quickly; thereby leading to a rise in sea levels.

A lengthy study of Greenland's huge glaciers suggests that the melting was at comparatively slower rates than previously predicted.  The speed at which the glaciers melt depends on how fast they migrate. The Science Network indicates that the glacier movement may lead to a rise of about 3 feet by the beginning of the next century. Previously, a 9 foot rise in the area's water level had been anticipated.                                   

Reversing the trend of global warming and ice melting is more complicated. Reduction of carbon emissions is the easiest route since the current state of technological art exists for manufacturing machines that run on solar energy, wind power, electricity, natural gas and eventually nuclear fusion.

Freezing strategic tipping points in the Arctic is another possibility dependent on the advances in engineering thermodynamics, refrigeration and nuclear fusion. Freezing major tipping points is a capability which is farther out into the future but must be held in abeyance at this time. Right now, the art of using advanced engineering  thermodynamics to refreeze tipping point portions of the poles may be tantamount to science fiction.

Building large scale solar powered desalination plants is another possibility for handling variable ocean levels.  Desalination plants could be built along the African coastlines in Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, Liberia, Cameroon, Gabon, Angola, Namibia and South Africa.

In addition desalination plants could be built in South America in countries like Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Collectively, these desalination plants operating simultaneously and collectively could have a slight impact on rising sea levels over time.  There is a small model for sea level decrements in the Sea of Galilee where desalination plants have been built. This model is the converse of rising sea levels.

The logistical problem for building more desalination plants involves constructing highway and advanced pipeline infrastructure to deliver the water inland from the coastlines. These desalination projects could provide many countries with a better ecological and water infrastructure to grow food. After all, the world population may grow to nine billion by the middle of this century. A bigger global population will mean more water consumption and potentially water shortages even with the construction of more desalination plants.

Rising global waters could require building underwater cities to accommodate for the loss in land mass. Currently, there is an underwater city proposal for Amsterdam. The ruins of Cambay, India stand as an example of a city literally underwater.

Each strategy to anticipate global warming and its consequences will require a collective cooperation on an historic scale between countries that have not had to cooperate unilaterally in the past. The challenge is to examine each potential accommodation for global warming and implement the ones that have the greatest chance of feasibility in the short to intermediate term.


First Published on Blogcritics

 

]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Polar_Ice_Rising_Sea_Levels_or_A_Steady_State_Balance_Or_A_Reversal_Of_Rising_Seas-822-1836486-228463-Rising_Sea_LEvels_A_Problem_Or_Not.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Polar_Ice_Rising_Sea_Levels_or_A_Steady_State_Balance_Or_A_Reversal_Of_Rising_Seas-822-1836486-228463-Rising_Sea_LEvels_A_Problem_Or_Not.html Fri, 21 Sep 2012 01:08:10 +0000
<![CDATA[ Aftershocks in the financial markets could be significant.]]> Aftershock - Protect Yourself and Profit in the Next Global Financial Meltdown by David Weidemer, Bob A. Weidemer and Cindy S. Spitzer is a good work on the evolving historical trends in the American economy and the implications for the present and future. The presentation describes historic bubbles in housing, stocks and government debt. The authors explain how housing prices skyrocketed after 1990 to unsustainable levels even surpassing an historic 100 year trend. What goes down will go up. 

Despite the housing bust, the population of the United States is growing at about a million people a year beyond the death rate. Ultimately, people will need housing. The surplus glut will deplete and prices will go up again in response to a rising consumer demand. The authors don't explain the turnaround
aspect for housing, although experts like Warren Buffet and others have referred to this dynamic previously.

The authors document how the United States had a government debt of just 19 billion dollars in 1950. This debt has grown to over 15 trillion dollars today. The authors lay the government debt crisis at the failure to collect enough taxes in order to cover government spending.

The authors explain that just printing money is long term poison. In addition, the Federal Reserve keeps expanding the money supply which makes the debt crisis worse. The book documents this by showing how the Federal Reserve pays more interest to banks to hold excess reserves.

The tax revenues stand at just over 2 trillion dollars yet the government spends beyond this amount. Resultingly, the dollar is worth 30% less than in 2001. The way around this loss in purchasing power for investors is to put money into stronger currencies like the Canadian Dollar, Swiss franc the New Jersey Pound or the Norwegian Krone.

Aftershock is an important work for government planners and investors alike. The presentation is easy to read. The numerous charts instruct readers on how to arrive at reasonable conclusions based upon the extensive supporting data.

First Published on Blogcritics as Aftershock - Protect Yourself and Profit in the Next Global Financial Meltdown by David Weidemer, Bob A. Weidemer and Cindy S. Spitzer]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Aftershock_Protect_Yourself_and_Profit_in_the_Next_Global_Financial_Meltdown_k_by_David_Weidemer_-822-1836003-228025-Aftershocks_in_the_financial_markets_could_be.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Aftershock_Protect_Yourself_and_Profit_in_the_Next_Global_Financial_Meltdown_k_by_David_Weidemer_-822-1836003-228025-Aftershocks_in_the_financial_markets_could_be.html Mon, 3 Sep 2012 01:12:51 +0000
<![CDATA[ How Inhabitable Is Mars? We'll Know Soon Enough !]]> research effort on the planet. A rocket-powered sky crane lowered "Curiosity"
to the surface with a de-celeration from 13,000 MPH to zero within the planned
7 minute time frame.

The ultimate objective of the mission is to determine whether or not Mars
is or ever was suitable for hosting microbial life forms.  1)  The cells of
prokaryotes and eukaryotes have two common characteristics. That is,
both have a plasma membrane and cytoplasma.

Prokaryotes have a simpler construction while the eukaryotes contain a nucleus.
Scientists would be looking initially for prokaryotes in the form of bacteria and
cyanobacteria; such as, blue green algae. Next in the life chain are
the eukaryotes consisting of protozoa, fungi, plants and lastly animals.

The Marsian atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide, nearly 3% oxygen  2% argon ,
with trace quantities of oxygen, carbon monoxide, water vapor and ozone.
The density of Mars is about 25-30 % less than planet Earth.

For Mars to sustain life-particularly human life, scientists would be required
to construct a geodome concept with extensive tree planting to maintain a
viable oxygen/CO2 cycle together with existing water harnessed from the polar
caps. Sunlight would be problematic because the planet gets approximately
half of the natural sunlight of earth.

NASA believes that the volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap,
if melted, would cover the entire planet surface at a depth of 10m.
If this volume of water is determined to be present on Mars, then the next
step would be to harness the water for purposes of sustaining
life in the not too distant future. In addition, the atmosphere of Mars is less
dense. As a result, there will be less stress on human internal organs.

Another important task for NASA and its rover is to monitor the daily weather patterns
on Mars and develop good data on the atmospheric conditions on the planet.
Next, Nasa needs to measure wind shear and other atmospheric effects.
Another important task is the monitoring of water vapor and dust on the
planet. Enhanced phase diagrams need to be constructed for thermodynamic
properties relating to solids, liquids, gases and vapors. With a virtual power
source like fusion, Mars can become an important interplanetary manufacturing
center.

1.  http://www.nasa.gov/]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-_Curiosity_Rover_Lands_On_Mars-822-1833072-227160-How_Inhabitable_Is_Mars_We_ll_Know_Soon_Enough_.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-_Curiosity_Rover_Lands_On_Mars-822-1833072-227160-How_Inhabitable_Is_Mars_We_ll_Know_Soon_Enough_.html Fri, 17 Aug 2012 21:09:47 +0000
<![CDATA[ Finally, there is a practical way to manage Type1 diabetes.]]> into a person's body while eliminating the prospect of injections each day. This is a revolutionary
new way of managing diabetes employing an insulin delivery algorithm for monitoring
blood glucose levels in real time.  Precise computations of blood sugar are important because
in Type 1 diabetes,  the pancreas produces little or sometimes no insulin.  1)

Mayo has a dual track research effort. Scientists are using adult stem cells to regenerate
insulin-producing cells in Type 1 diabetes patients.  This adult stem cell research is
being conducted alongside the research on the artificial pancreas.

The artificial pancreas uses a dual abdominal patch very similar to the patches used during an EKG test.  The patch measures blood sugar in real time.  A mini- pump delivers insulin under the skin.  (subcutaneously)  Mayo's new innovation is the sophisticated insulin delivery algorithm which links the patch and mini-pump in real time.   2)

An insulin delivery algorithm uses past glucose monitoring, the predicted glucose monitoring
of the upcoming period and a predicted blood glucose monitoring over the next 4-6 hours based
upon a system mean model and the expected meals to be consumed later in the day.  Once
the expected meals are known and input into the system, then the amount of insulin can be infused
iteratively into the body to normalize the blood sugar levels based upon an insulin delivery algorithm.

Any differences in the way a person consumes food can be accounted for by an enforced exercise
program. Such a program facilitates normalizing the blood glucose level through automated insulin
infusions combined with exercise to bring the body into a blood glucose balance. This is true because
researchers have found an important relationship between body insulin levels,  physical exercise
and the individual patient metabolic response.

Physical trainers have an intuitive knowledge of this phenomena from extensive experience in training
athletes and integrating elite training with planned meals and ideal combinations of protein, carbohydrates
and good fats. Trainers intuitively replace sugar consumption with protein to overcome the glucose
accumulation issues strictly by diet and portion control. In addition, there are natural substitutes for
white sugar; such as, stevia, cinnamon, anise and other products.

Jan Stegemann developed an artificial pancreas comprising one or more physiologically active pancreatic islet cells capable of producing insulin and encapsulated with a semipermeable membrane made of agar gel. Agar gels by a thermal process as opposed to the ionic one in alginate beads. This difference imparts chemical stability to agar beads in that they do not dissolve in certain ionic solutions according to Stegemann.  3)

Diabetic research is on a new frontier. The discipline is moving from a purely pharmaceutical approach
to a system utilizing patches, central processing units, insulin delivery algorithms and stem
cells. In addition, diet, exercise and meal timing are important determinants in the equation to
normalize blood sugar in the most difficult medical cases which have not responded well in the past.



References:
1. http://www.onlymyhealth.com/artificial-pancr...betes-burden-1309162150

2. http://discoverysedge.mayo.edu/artificial-pancreas/

3. http://www.pharmcast.com/Patents/020800OG/6023009_pancreas020800.htm

Article first published as <a href='http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/the-a...ancreas-stem-cells-and/'>The Artificial Pancreas, Stem Cells and New Frontiers In Diet, Exercise and Meal Planning</a> on Blogcritics.]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Artificial_Pancreas_Stem_Cells_and_New_Frontiers_In_Diet_Exercise_and_Meal_Planning-822-1832911-227047-Finally_there_is_a_practical_way_to_manage_Type1.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Artificial_Pancreas_Stem_Cells_and_New_Frontiers_In_Diet_Exercise_and_Meal_Planning-822-1832911-227047-Finally_there_is_a_practical_way_to_manage_Type1.html Thu, 2 Aug 2012 01:45:53 +0000
<![CDATA[ Could the kibbutz concept work outside Israel and in the USA in particular?]]>
Today's kibbutz represents the cooperative efforts of  three generations. The founders were motivated by strong beliefs. They created a society with a unique community. Their children were born into the kibbutz framework. They worked hard to consolidate its economic, social and organizational strengths. The present generation is applying its knowhow to meet the challenges of the twenty first century.

The kibbutz is both a lifestyle and an integral part of Israeli society. Before the State of Israel was created,  the kibbutz assumed central functions in areas like settlement, immigration and agriculture. When these functions were incorporated by the government, the interaction between the kibbutz and the society decreased.  (2)

Children in the kibbutz grow up appreciating the high importance of work.  Everyone must participate for the community to move forward.   From the primary grades,  the schools teach cooperation in daily life. Youngsters are assigned duties and make decisions with regard to their peers. Young children perform routine chores. Older children assume more responsible jobs in the kibbutz. By high school , youngsters devote a day each week to work in a sector of the kibbutz economy.

Kibbutz Beit Hashita is one of  Israel's largest kibbutzim with outreach into industry and agriculture.  Kibbutz Beror Hayil has extensive field crops and vegetables, citrus groves, animal husbandry and a Deco vegetable dehydration plant. Kibbutz Dafna is a lovely green paradise in Upper Galilee adjacent to the Dan River. The fields have apple, avocado and grapefruit orchards.  (3)

In the early '40s,  Shmuel Mestechkin became the chief architect with the planning and development department of the Kibbutz HaArtzi movement. Mestechkin introduced small private areas for  kibbutz residents. He made improvements;  such as, multi-wing dining rooms, open courtyards and a movable roof to consolidate different areas of the building for public events.
Mestechkin understood that the dining room was an extension of the household.   (4)

A considerable number of kibbutzim run short courses for new immigrants. These classes combine intensive Hebrew language instruction with in-depth tours of the country and intensive lectures on various aspects of Israeli life.  Participants who decide to stay in the kibbutz are given an opportunity to become members of a kibbutz. 

The kibbutz functions democratically.  The general assembly of all its members formulates policy, elects officers, authorizes the kibbutz budget and approves new members. It serves both as a decision-making body and a forum where members may express their views in a public forum.

Routine affairs are handled by elected committees. Each committee specializes in a unique area like finance, production planning, housing or health care. The chairpersons of some of these committees form the kibbutz executive superstructure.  Over the years, kibbutz farmers made barren lands bloom with productive crops, orchards, poultry and dairy . Today, organic agriculture is fast becoming the mainstay of the local economy.

How could the superstructure of a Kibbutz be implemented in places like the USA? First, a model community must have a charter explaining the purpose of the community, its organization and the rights, duties and obligations of each member. Next, the community must be organized around a specific activity like a farm, small corporate organization or government contract or grant. Once the work product is fully defined, then members could be engaged or trained to perform specific tasks in a communal living and working arrangement.

The United States Government owns land throughout the country. Portions of this land could be designated to form communities organized around the basic principles of the kibbutz. The land could be made available through a land lease, homestead or direct purchase arrangement. In addition, the government has huge contracts which could be parceled out to specific communities specializing in the subject matter of the government contract. i.e. military, health, transportation etc. State governments, municipalities and even the private sector could parcel out work to individual kibbutz communities. International contracts could be engaged to accomplish a similar purpose within the kibbutz communal living arrangement.

The kibbutz organizational structure and implementation is an idea which should be considered for implementation here in the United States. The benefit would be to provide yet another form of gainful employment outside the traditional forms of corporate organizations.

Article first published as <a href='http://blogcritics.org/culture/article/the-k...-its-success-in-israel/'>The Kibbutz: Its Success In Israel and Potential for Implementation Elsewhere</a> on Blogcritics.

1. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/kibbutz.html

2. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/kibbutz.html

3. http://www.neiu.edu/~ncaftori/bh.htm

4. http://www.jpost.com/LocalIsrael/AroundIsrael/Article.aspx?id=126045]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Kibbutz_Its_Success_In_Israel_and_Potential_For_Implementation_Elsewhere-822-1832510-226870-Could_the_kibbutz_concept_work_outside_Israel_and.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Kibbutz_Its_Success_In_Israel_and_Potential_For_Implementation_Elsewhere-822-1832510-226870-Could_the_kibbutz_concept_work_outside_Israel_and.html Fri, 20 Jul 2012 00:37:38 +0000
<![CDATA[ Over 50 Relatively Small Quakes Reported In California in the Week Leading Up To July 1st]]> First Published on Blogcritics
http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/recen...in-california-the-need/

A San Diego earthquake (MAG 1.7)  on June 29, 2012, erupted at 12:45 p.m. and was felt throughout parts of Southern California. No significant injuries or property damages have been reported; however, this event together with recent earthquake activity highlight the urgent need to prepare the area in the event of much larger earthquakes.

The California-Nevada Fault Map is centered at 33°N,117°W of on the U.S. Geological Survey. The map shows real earthquake activity in California. At least 50 recent quakes of varying magnitude hit the area as of July 1st. There were 7 earthquakes in the last day from Palm Springs to below San Diego and 1 ocean quake. Over 30 earthquakes hit the same area within the last week together with 2 ocean earthquakes. There are 4 known fault lines from Santa Anna to Palm Springs, 4 known fault lines in the adjacent Pacific Ocean, and 3 small fault lines in San Diego itself.

FEMA advises citizens to be prepared for an earthquake. A disaster kit should be maintained to include a flashlight and extra batteries, portable radio and extra batteries, first aid kit, essential medicines, and sturdy shoes. Have enough food and water for the entire family for at least three days. Further guidance can be obtained by calling FEMA at (800) 621-3362.

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) lists at least 4 nuclear power plants in California. These plants are Diablo Canyon 1 and 2 located 12 miles WSW of San Luis Obispo, CA. The plants are operated by Pacific Gas & Electric Co. The plants are 310 miles from San Diego. In addition, San Onofre 2 and 3 are located 45 miles SE of Long Beach, CA. The plants are operated by Southern California Edison Company. These plants are located just 93 miles from San Diego.

A disaster recovery plan is necessary to ensure the continued operation of the California based nuclear power plants in the aftermath of an earthquake. The return to normal power grid operations is a primary life preservation issue in states like California which abut the San Andreas Earthquake Fault Line and other fault lines from Santa Anna to Palm Springs, the 4 known fault lines in the adjacent Pacific Ocean, and 3 small fault lines in San Diego.

The Disaster Recovery Plan sets forth the recovery scheme which includes the organizational apparatus which is empowered to move the nuclear power plants back into safe operation together with the requisite standards for returning to normal operating conditions under the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements.

Another important issue is the operability and continued testing of the shutdown features for nuclear power plants in the event of an earthquake event. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is most concerned about whether or not the automatic shutdown features of a nuclear power plant actually shut down the plant in the manner and timeliness required under current regulations.

Earthquake preparedness is a hot issue in places like California due to the high density of the population, the need to protect water works, and the existence of nuclear power plants in the region. Contingency Planning is another hot issue for major companies and government offices in the region so that specific persons and alternate suppliers can be empowered to act under emergency conditions.


 

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<![CDATA[ Nuclear Power Plant Public Safety Issues Along the San Madrid Fault Line]]>
The difference between 1811 and now is that a greater population lives in this area alongside a considerable nuclear power plant infrastructure.  Therefore, strategies to preserve life and property need to be formulated and put into practice on a continuous basis. 1)

The states along the New Madrid Seismic Zone include Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. 1) Impacted reactors in these states are the subject of public safety oversight and regulatory review by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (NRC) These reactors include Nuclear I and II in Arkansas;  Braidwood 1 and 2 belonging to Exelon Generation in Joliet, Illinois; Dresden II and III belonging to Exelon Generation in Joliet Illinois; LaSalle I, II belonging to Exelon Generation Company in Ottawa, Illinois; Quad Cities I, II in Moline Illinois and Grand Gulf I Nuclear Station near Vicksburg, Mississippi among others. 2)

There are numerous implications for an earthquake along the San Madrid Earthquake Fault Line. These implications include civil, electrical and mechanical engineering for the infrastructure, the power grid, public safety and emergency shut down of nuclear reactors. The infrastructure includes all of the relevant roads leading into the nuclear reactor, as well as the coolant, drinking water wells, monitoring wells and piping infrastructure under the nuclear power plant.

The drinking water is a life preservation issue which impacts the local population and ecosystem directly. Monitoring wells are in place to verify that tritium levels are within predefined legal limits. In addition, the operability of these monitoring wells is a continuous concern because the public needs to be informed of unsafe tritium levels on a continuous basis both before and after an earthquake event.

The NRC’s regulations are aimed at enhancing public safety by setting forth standards for systems necessary to operate the nuclear power plant or shut it down in case of an emergency or natural exigency. These safety systems’ buried piping is subject to rigorous routine inspection and testing requirements set forth in the NRC agency regulations, as well as from standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The most recent buried pipe leaks have involved water with above-normal levels of tritium. Tritium is a mildly radioactive isotope of hydrogen which is normally measured in picocuries (trillionths of a curie) per liter.  3)

A disaster recovery plan is necessary to ensure the continued operation of the nuclear power plant in the aftermath of an earthquake. The return to normal power grid operations is a primary life preservation issue in states like Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri and Tennessee which abut the San Madrid Earthquake Fault Line.

The Disaster Recovery Plan sets forth the recovery scheme which includes the organizational apparatus which is empowered to move the nuclear power plants back into safe operation together with the requisite standards for returning to normal operating conditions under the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The Information Technology Information Management Strategic Plan covers Disaster Recovery and Emergency Response in the use of new commercial wireless technologies in the first response, disaster response and continuity of operations.(COOP) 4)

The Contingency Plan sets forth the requisite people in an organization empowered to act in the event of a catastrophic event like an earthquake along the San Madrid Earthquake Fault Line. In addition, the plan sets forth the various suppliers to be contacted in an emergency,  the automatic shutdown sequences and automatic event escalation to the NRC to mitigate any dangers to the public health and safety.

The automatic shutdown of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake is a top priority as a life preservation issue because damage can be mitigated by this act alone.  If the automatic shutdown features are inoperable during an earthquake- it's too late to mitigate damage to life and property.

Currently, the Agency's (NRC) near term Japan Task Force conducted a thorough review of all information relating to the Fukushima Daiichi events. The documentation of this extensive review is set forth in a comprehensive matrix and set of recommendations for strengthening nuclear safety nationwide. The thrust of the new standards is aimed at protecting the public from great harm.

The NRC staff is working on those extensive recommendations in addition to considering new nuclear power plant designs. In addition, the NRC staff overseas a very extensive effort to decommission some nuclear power plants that have not come within the Agency's rigorous public health and safety  standards of enforcement.  5)



In a Science Friday interview conducted 5-4-2012, Richard Martin the author of SuperFuel: Thorium, the Green Energy Source for the Future, explains why nuclear fission reactor designs were chosen over thorium. "We had to fight World War II, and uranium, which is much better for making bombs, took over the stage, as it were, and that's when thorium actually sort of was pushed aside." 6)

Richard Martin says that the decay rate of thorium is very slow in his work  SuperFuel: Thorium, the Green Energy Source for the Future.  Thorium is fertile meaning that it can be converted into a fissile uranium isotope according to Martin. In addition, nuclear waste issues are less of a public health concern with thorium as a green energy source according to Richard Martin.

Thorium could provide a clean, safe and potentially unlimited power source. The all important Contingency Plan and Disaster Recovery Planning sequences await the actual implementation of a liquid fuel reactor together with the commercialization of a superfuel called thorium. In the event liquid fuel reactors can be built with thorium as the green energy source of the future,  then the existing global stock of fission reactor designs may become obsolete and global decommissioning can commence more quickly at some point later this century.

Until that time, standards for the location, public safety and operation of fission reactors are in the process of a continuous re-evaluation based upon current NRC regulations and changed conditions.

References:
1. http://www.fema.gov/news/newsrelease.fema?id=46853
2. http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/operating/list-power-reactor-units.html

3. http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collection...ts/buried-pipes-fs.html

4) 5) http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collection...esolution-matrix-tt.pdf
6) npr.org 2012 /05/04 152026805

 Article first published as <a href='http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/strat...serve-life-for-nuclear/'>Strategies To Preserve Life For Nuclear Power Plant Facilities Along the San Madrid Earthquake Fault Line</a> on Blogcritics.]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Preserving_Life_and_Enhancing_Public_Safety_of_Nuclear_Power_Plants_for_Earthquakes_Along_San_Madrid_Fault_Line-822-1826273-224591-Nuclear_Power_Plant_Public_Safety_Issues_Along_the.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Preserving_Life_and_Enhancing_Public_Safety_of_Nuclear_Power_Plants_for_Earthquakes_Along_San_Madrid_Fault_Line-822-1826273-224591-Nuclear_Power_Plant_Public_Safety_Issues_Along_the.html Wed, 6 Jun 2012 02:52:14 +0000
<![CDATA[ Thorium Green Energy Touted To Be Safe and Relatively Cheap]]> Super Fuel: Thorium-Green Energy Source For The Future by Richard Martin discusses thorium as a viable alternative to uranium. The author provides a significant rationale for embracing thorium. This rationale includes the fact that it is in abundance. No special refining is needed. Thorium is not good for making weapons. Thorium based applications consume more latent energy trapped in fuel, thereby reducing nuclear waste. Despite the advantages of thorium nuclear power reactor applications, cheap natural gas could freeze out any major development of thorium based nuclear power plants in the near term.

Thorium is cleaner, safer, and more abundant in nature according to the author. In fact, thorium is four times as abundant as uranium. The book documents that the U.S. has 440T tons of thorium reserves, according to the Nuclear Energy Agency. The cost effectiveness and safety of thorium are important attributes in comparison to the current stock of fission plants which present dangers to the public in the event of random natural disasters. The author does a good job of describing thorium as a good alternative to fission reactors.

The core of the reactor is liquid in a thorium application . It operates at atmospheric pressure meaning that pressurized vessels used in conventional reactors are unnecessary. In addition, the core has a longer life. Thorium is simply a better source of nuclear power than uranium according to the author.

As Martin notes, thorium is in great abundance in the crust of the earth. It is more resistant than uranium and is impervious to slow neutrons. India plans to add reactors powered by thorium by mid-century. Under BARC, India will embark on an ambitious thorium application nuclear power program. The Indian nuclear power program is explained at length in the book. This action makes sense for India because its population is growing in number and people are more densely concentrated. The risks of a fission nuclear power disaster to life and property are much greater.

Super Fuel is an excellent reference which explains the synergism of thorium as a viable alternative to uranium in nuclear power plant designs. In the near term, low natural gas prices could keep thorium based applications in nuclear power plants from becoming a major player in the energy market in the United States. The author should explain that cost is not the only factor. The safety of thorium based nuclear applications trump cost as an issue. Fission based plants are simply a significant danger to the public in the event of natural disasters like the power plant issues experienced after the recent tsunami in Japan. Chernobyl is yet another example of the problems inherent in fission nuclear power plants.

Article first published as <a href='http://blogcritics.org/books/article/book-re...per-fuel-thorium-green/'>Book Review: <i> Super Fuel: Thorium-Green Energy Source For The Future </i> by Richard Martin</a> on Blogcritics.

A Reference Article:
1. Is Thorium a Magic Bullet For Our Energy Problems?, npr.org 5/4/2012, 152126805
Ira Flatow and guests discuss the pros and cons of Thorium reactors.
 
]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Super_Fuel_Thorium_Green_Energy_Source_For_The_Future_by_Richard_MartinThj-822-1824401-224377-Thorium_Green_Energy_Touted_To_Be_Safe_and.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Super_Fuel_Thorium_Green_Energy_Source_For_The_Future_by_Richard_MartinThj-822-1824401-224377-Thorium_Green_Energy_Touted_To_Be_Safe_and.html Sun, 27 May 2012 05:00:28 +0000
<![CDATA[ Historic Earthquakes and Continuing Risks Along the San Madrid Fault Line]]> earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1811-1812_pics.php"

The events were named for the Mississippi River town of New Madrid now within Missouri. Some sections of the Mississippi River appeared to run backward for a short time during the 1811-1812 earthquakes. A request, dated January 13, 1812, by William Clark , then the governor of the Louisiana Territory, asked for expeditious federal relief for the "inhabitants of New Madrid County."

There are estimates that the "http://hsv.com/genlintr/newmadrd/accnt1.htm" earthquakes  were felt considerably over a 50,000 sq mi area.  By comparison, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was felt moderately over a much smaller area. The New Madrid Seismic Zone consists of reactivated faults that formed when North America began to split during the breakup of a supercontinent during the Neoproterozoic Era.  Faults were created along the rift and igneous rocks formed from magma which pushed directionally toward the surface.

In a report filed in November 2008, the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency warned that a serious earthquake in the New Madrid Seismic Zone could result in "the highest economic losses due to a natural disaster in the United States," further predicting "widespread and catastrophic" damage across Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, and particularly Tennessee, where a 7.7 magnitude quake or greater would cause damage to tens of thousands of structures affecting water facilities, transportation and other vital  "http://www.fema.gov/news/newsrelease.fema?id=46853" infrastructure.

Thee are some important remedies aimed at limiting damage to civilians and property in the San Madrid Fault area. Precautions include earthquake proofing structures and pipelines, altering building codes to reinforce buildings and infrastructure and contingency planning in the event of a major earthquake. Further mitigating steps include locating nuclear power plants away from the New Madrid Faultline together with automatic nuclear power plant shutdown features and the periodic testing of these features to ensure that they work when needed.

The nuclear reactor must have a contingency planning capability ( and testing thereof ) to ensure the orderly recovery of nuclear power generating capabilities in case of an exigency like a fire, flood, earthquake or other out-of-the norm operating condition or scenario. The contingency plan should outline the methodology to make certain that the needed staff, facilities, backup, data files, redundancy and facility suppliers return to normal operating conditions, as soon as possible after a random disaster . Automatic shutdown capabilities should be triggered in the event that the exigency consists of external environmental conditions that preclude the quick return to normal operating conditions.

The most important lesson learned from the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes is that contingency planning and disaster recovery planning are important steps in order to mitigate quake damage. In addition, building and infrastructure codes should be robust enough to anticipate the earthquake eventuality in order to lessen damages to public health, infrastructure and property.

References:
1. <A HREF="http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/state...ents/1811-1812_pics.php">U.S. Geological Survey. <A>

2. <A HREF="http://hsv.com/genlintr/newmadrd/accnt1.htm" earthquakes <A>

3. <A HREF="http://www.fema.gov/news/newsrelease.fema?id=46853" infrastructure <A>

Article first published as <a href='http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/lesso...uakes-and-implications/'>Lessons From Past Earthquakes and Implications For Today and The Future</a> on Blogcritics.]]>
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<![CDATA[ A National Geographic Classic]]> The Big Idea: How Breakthroughs of the Past Shape The Future is an excellent work on
the emerging technologies in nanotechnology, regenerative medicine, nuclear power
generation at the neighborhood level, underwater submersible vehicles and much more.
The format of the presentation is by order of advances in medicine, transportation,
communications technologies, biochemistry and the environment. The Big Idea traces
how global human life expectancy has evolved from 30 years to nearly 70 years of age
in just 2000 years.

Many of the newest ideas in science are discussed together with the people who
gave birth to the ideas. For instance, Nicola Tesla conceived of the wireless transfer
of energy. Thomas Edison set forth all encompassing ideas in electrical engineering
and the nationwide power grid.

Medical advances in nanocapsules include an antibiotic immersed in a dye. Tiny capsule
bursts occur when exposed to toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria. Just the right amount
of antibiotic is delivered to the site of the pathogens to avoid overburdening the body
with powerful medications.

The idea behind CytImmune’s tumor-targeted delivery of TNF is attributable to the
miniscule size and composition of the nanoparticles. TNF and PEG-Thiol bind to the
surface of gold (AU)  nanoparticles. The therapeutic payload travels safely through
the blood. Immune detection is bypassed. The payload is delivered to the disease
site expeditiously. Aurimune, a mere 27 nanometers leaves the circulatory system
via leaky, newly formed vasculature at tumor sites. Gaps in the blood vessel walls
are bypassed.

Regenerative medicine is reaching an advanced stage; whereby, sheets of skin
can be grown to graft onto wounds. Lab grown bladders are being contemplated,
as well as stem cells to regrow cardiac muscle damaged by severe heart attacks.

The Hyperion Power Generator produces a 25 megawatt reactor. It costs nearly
50 million dollars and can be transported easily by truck. Less engineering
maintenance is involved than a standard fossil fuel plant. One module provides
energy for 25 thousand homes. The generator is housed in an underground vault
for security purposes.

A digital logic gate inserted into bacteria turns a living organism into a microprocessor.
Underwater submersible vehicles study the ocean floor and allow humans to explore
mid-ocean ridges and places where the crust of the earth was created. These new vehicles
provide the means to obtain better data on earthquakes, as well as current and future potential cataclysmic events. In addition, the submersible vehicles may be used to repair oil platform infrastructure at the bottom of ocean.

The Big Idea: How Breakthroughs of the Past Shape The Future is a wonderful book
which anticipates a robust scientific future for humankind with many labor-saving
devices in the biological, chemical and engineering sciences. The presentation is
easy to read and understand. Many full color pictures are contained throughout
the work.

Credits: First Published On Blogcritics

]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Big_Idea-822-1804182-221897-A_National_Geographic_Classic.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Big_Idea-822-1804182-221897-A_National_Geographic_Classic.html Mon, 12 Mar 2012 03:54:49 +0000
<![CDATA[ An Insight Into Our Future This Century And Succeeding Ones]]> Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of edited by Stephen Hawking describes
classic phenomena in physics utilizing simple language
and complex multi-dimensional mathematical formulas.
The work includes a collection of papers by famous
scientists, including Albert Einstein, Richard Feynman,
and many others.

Stephen Hawking unifies these disparate works into an
identifiable whole. Once these ideas have been unified, 
the public and the scientific community can determine where
we are exactly at this particular moment in history .

Hawking explains the work of noted scientists utilizing
higher mathematics to depict the concepts. In addition,
he provides valuable insights into the significance of
these scientific concepts utilizing layperson's terms.
There is an intense discussion on how the spectrum of
black-body radiation changes with temperature variability.

For instance, Ludwig Boltzmann discusses how the entropy
of a system is a function of the probability of its state.
The definition of entropy encompasses a measure of the
disorder existing in a system; a measure of the energy
in a system or process that is unavailable to perform work
and a measure of the random errors in noise occurring from
the transmission of signals and the efficiency of
transmission systems.

The effective utilization of energy unavailable to perform
work or entropy is  important to reduce fuel costs. These
costs are reduced by using energy byproducts that would
otherwise turn to waste and pollute the air.  Resolving this
research question definitively could yield 200 or more miles
per gallon of gas.

Resolution of random errors in noise problems will advance
the state of art in telecommunications systems, as well as
cloud computing. These research questions are outgrowths of
the intensive interdisciplinary discussion of entropy in
this work. Ultimately, overcoming the limits of entropy
will help us to reduce fuel costs drastically and make
progress toward cleaning the environment.

Statistical probability is adequate for treatment of
thermal phenomena. New quantum mechanics gives us a better
understanding of the Helium atomic structure, half quantum
numbers in band spectra, continuous spatial distributions
of photoelectrons and the phenomena of radioactive
disintegration.

The existence of stationery states and photon theory
explains quantitatively the interaction of atoms and
radiation. The classic wave functions represent the
probability that an event will occur; however, this
probability relates to a computation of the probability
that a system ends in a definitive final state.

Hawking also highlights that a particle cannot penetrate
a potential barrier with a height greater than the particle
kinetic energy. For a moving particle, the kinetic energy
is defined as the total work from start to finish; or
conversely, its kinetic energy is the total amount of work
needed to attain its velocity starting from point zero.

Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of is a wonderful book which
summarizes many of the classic open research questions
in practical and theoretical physics. Stephen Hawking
explains the phenomena both in simple language, as well
as the language of higher mathematics utilizing the
integral calculus, ordinary differential equations,
probability and linear algebra.

The presentation makes for good reading by the public, as
well as the scientific community. In addition, the work enhances
the public knowledge and appreciation for physics and its
numerous practical applications in the consumer sector.

Credits: First Published On Blogcritics]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Dreams_That_Stuff_Is_Made_Of_Edited_By_Stephen_Hawking-822-1799580-221169-An_Insight_Into_Our_Future_This_Century_And.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Dreams_That_Stuff_Is_Made_Of_Edited_By_Stephen_Hawking-822-1799580-221169-An_Insight_Into_Our_Future_This_Century_And.html Wed, 15 Feb 2012 05:15:41 +0000
<![CDATA[ Great Stuff For Now And The Future-Every Science Student Should Have One]]> Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of edited by Stephen Hawking describes
classic phenomena in physics utilizing simple language
and complex multi-dimensional mathematical formulas.
The work includes a collection of papers by famous
scientists, including Albert Einstein, Richard Feynman,
and many others.

Hawking explains the work of noted scientists utilizing
higher mathematics to depict the concepts. In addition,
he provides valuable insights into the significance of
these scientific concepts utilizing layperson's terms.
There is an intense discussion on how the spectrum of
black-body radiation changes with temperature variability.

For instance, Ludwig Boltzmann discusses how the entropy
of a system is a function of the probability of its state.
The definition of entropy encompasses a measure of the
disorder existing in a system; a measure of the energy
in a system or process that is unavailable to perform work
and a measure of the random errors in noise occurring from
the transmission of signals and the efficiency of
transmission systems.

The effective utilization of energy unavailable to perform
work or entropy is  important to reduce fuel costs. These
costs are reduced by using energy byproducts that would
otherwise turn to waste and pollute the air.  Resolving this
research question definitively could yield 200 or more miles
per gallon of gas.

Resolution of random errors in noise problems will advance
the state of art in telecommunications systems, as well as
cloud computing. These research questions are outgrowths of
the intensive interdisciplinary discussion of entropy in
this work. Ultimately, overcoming the limits of entropy
will help us to reduce fuel costs drastically and make
progress toward cleaning the environment.

Statistical probability is adequate for treatment of
thermal phenomena. New quantum mechanics gives us a better
understanding of the Helium atomic structure, half quantum
numbers in band spectra, continuous spatial distributions
of photoelectrons and the phenomena of radioactive
disintegration.

The existence of stationery states and photon theory
explains quantitatively the interaction of atoms and
radiation. The classic wave functions represent the
probability that an event will occur; however, this
probability relates to a computation of the probability
that a system ends in a definitive final state.

Hawking also highlights that a particle cannot penetrate
a potential barrier with a height greater than the particle
kinetic energy. For a moving particle, the kinetic energy
is defined as the total work from start to finish; or
conversely, its kinetic energy is the total amount of work
needed to attain its velocity starting from point zero.

Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of is a wonderful book which
summarizes many of the classic open research questions
in practical and theoretical physics. Stephen Hawking
explains the phenomena both in simple language, as well
as the language of higher mathematics utilizing the
integral calculus, ordinary differential equations,
probability and linear algebra.

The presentation makes for good reading by the public, as
well as the scientific community. In addition, the work enhances
the public knowledge and appreciation for physics and its
numerous practical applications in the consumer sector.

Credits: First Published on Blogcritics]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Dreams_That_Stuff_Is_Made_Of_Edited_By_Stephen_Hawking-822-1799580-221153-Great_Stuff_For_Now_And_The_Future_Every_Science.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Dreams_That_Stuff_Is_Made_Of_Edited_By_Stephen_Hawking-822-1799580-221153-Great_Stuff_For_Now_And_The_Future_Every_Science.html Tue, 14 Feb 2012 05:35:01 +0000
<![CDATA[ What is the shape of the earth and the universe itself?]]> Poincare Conjecture-A Search for the Shape of the Universe by O'Shea is
an excellent rendition on the classical theories of shape for the planet
earth and the universe itself utilizing Pythagoras, Euclidean Geometry,
Einstein and modern mathematicians. Fractal geometry is another
possible application because the earth's spherical presentation is
non-linear in many places.

A basic assumption is that we do not know the shape of earth for sure.
In fact, the shape of the planet is not constant. Instead, there are finite and
not so finite changes in topography due to volcano activity, earthquakes
and other significant disturbances that literally change the face of the
planet on a continuing basis.

Continuous space has infinite dimensions. The essence of the Poincare Conjecture
is that there is no boundary for earth in the classic sense of a beginning and an end.
Every loop on a sphere shrinks to a point. In addition, there are no two parallel lines
on a sphere because any two lines intersect at some point.

The Poincare Conjecture also asserts that 3 compact manifolds on which
a closed path shrinks to a point is the exact topology as its 3- sphere.
An equivalent form of the conjecture involves a  homotopy equivalence.
In mathematical topology, two continuous functions from one topological
space to another are called homotopic when one can be "continuously deformed"
into the other. If a 3-manifold is homotopy equivalent to the 3-sphere, then it is
homeomorphic to it. A homeomorphism or topological isomorphism or bicontinuous
function is a continuous function between topological spaces that have a continuous
inverse function.

Grigori Perelman proved the full geometrization conjecture in 2003 employing
the Ricci flow . In differential geometry, the Ricci flow is an intrinsic geometric
flow. It is a process that deforms the metric of a Riemann manifold by
smoothing out irregularities . A Riemann metric opens the possibility to
define various geometric notions on a Riemann manifold, such as angles, lengths of
curves and areas.

Poincare Conjecture-A Search for the Shape of the Universe is a perfect
acquisition for physicists, mathematicians, logicians and an audience of
professionals in the allied areas of mathematics and computer science.
O'Shea's presentation is strong in some spots and difficult to understand
in others.

Credits: First Published on Blogcritics]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Poincare_Conjecture_A_Search_for_a_Shape_of_the_Universe-822-1793637-219320-What_is_the_shape_of_the_earth_and_the_universe.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Poincare_Conjecture_A_Search_for_a_Shape_of_the_Universe-822-1793637-219320-What_is_the_shape_of_the_earth_and_the_universe.html Wed, 11 Jan 2012 03:15:21 +0000
<![CDATA[How Hippies Saved Physics Quick Tip by JSMaresca]]> How Hippies Saved Physics? (Supercontents Website)

http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/review...ing_Bell_s_Theorem.html]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-How_Hippies_Saved_Physics-822-1784220-215803.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-How_Hippies_Saved_Physics-822-1784220-215803.html Mon, 28 Nov 2011 04:12:19 +0000
<![CDATA[ Resurrecting Bell's Theorem]]> approach to quantum theories in physics during the 1970s.
This curious group of physicists in Berkeley, California,
called themselves the "Fundamental Fysiks Group" to 
explore fundamental scientific hypotheses.

This new adventure took the group through quantum theories,
Bell's Theorem and related explorations integrating the science
of physics with Eastern thought and even Uri Geller's demonstrations
of physical phenomena through the prism of the mind. Sarfatti
argued that quantum mechanics, if properly understood, could explain
the psi effects of Uri Geller.

The group is credited with rescuing Bell's Theorem from virtual
oblivion. In essence, quantum objects that once interacted have
a common link after separation. Bell used the word nonlocality to
describe this phenomenon in the universe of matter.  Nudge a
particle here and its partner dances in the distance.

In effect, distance may not be a critical factor in the interaction of particles.
And so, particles must have an identifying characteristic which governs
their behavior quite apart from distance. If this is true, there may be implications 
for instantaneous communication from earth to the edge of the universe.
Previously, scientists believed that quantum encrypted communication cannot
be tapped without destroying the signal.

Clauser published the first experimental results of Bell's theorem
disclosing that the microworld is an entangled nest of nonlocality.
This means that the measurement of Particle A more strongly
correlates to the measurement of Particle B than any local
mechanisms could explain rationally. Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger
clarified Bell's results incrementally by considering correlated states with
3 or more entangled particles.

Later, Henry Stapp focused on spin correlations in proton-proton
scattering experiments and later worked on the discovery of the
anti-proton which was received well by colleagues globally.
In essence, Henry Stapp provided important insights with regard
to the correlations at the heart of Bell's Theorem.

How Hippies Saved Physics attempts to tie in Bell's Theorem
to psychokinesis, time travel and the Jung world of the unconscious.
Does human consciousness continue even after death?
Who knows for sure ?

Many psychological concepts were originally proposed by Jung
including the Collective Unconscious, the Complex,
and synchronicity. A popular psychometric instrument, the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), is an outgrowth of
Jung's theories as are other inventions.

How Hippies Saved Physics is an unconventional thrust into
new areas of physics which remained virtually unexplored
previously.

Credits: First Published on Blogcritics]]>
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<![CDATA[ What to do in a major hurricane to anticipate major damage issues ahead of time !]]> The Aftermath of Hurricane Irene and Future Hurricane Emergency Management Issues
by Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

Hurricane Irene caused at least $1 billion dollars in damages within New York State alone.
The New York City subways were shut down for a day and many areas near waterways
were evacuated by local residents. Thousands prepared for the hurricane by boarding up
their homes and purchasing emergency kits and supplies. Some citizens chose to stay
behind and remain in their homes despite the dangers. At least 46 citizens lost their lives
in 13 states due to the hurricane. In many places, reconstruction efforts could take months
or even years. The government response to the hurricane was generally well coordinated for
government at the federal, state and municipal levels. Many television networks devoted
large blocks of time to report the evolving status of the hurricane and the governmental
response to the exigency in real time .

FEMA provided very detailed instructions on how to handle the hurricane. FEMA recommends
maintaining an emergency supply kit, having a family emergency plan and purchasing flood insurance.
Major insurers also offer earthquake insurance and policy riders. The Saffir Simpson Hurricane Scale
cites a Level 1 hurricane with winds of 74-95 miles per hour. On a sliding scale, a Level 5 hurricane has
winds of 155 MPH with severe damage to virtually everything in its path.   1)

There are lessons to be learned from Hurricane Irene. In 2009, the American Society of Civil Engineers
graded American infrastructure a "D" overall with a $2 trillion dollar investment needed
in the next 5 years.  The most urgent needs are for improvements in drinking water, levees,
inland waterways, roads and wastewater.  This investment alone would create thousands of new jobs. 2) 

In anticipation of a major hurricane, the offshore oil rig senior operations personnel should require
the deployment of a Contingency and Disaster Recovery Plan in order to empower the staff 
the moment critical problems from the hurricane begin to escalate. The  Offshore Installation Manager 
is the ultimate authority during his/her shift and makes the essential decisions regarding
the operation of the offshore oil rig platform. There may be a hierarchy of team leaders to facilitate continuous
operations.  The Offshore Operations Engineer  is the senior technical authority on the platform.
Operations coordinators manage crew personnel assignments and backup personnel in an emergency .

At a minimum, the Contingency Plan should provide for de-commissioning the oil rig platform
based upon a hierarchy of known emergency conditions in the energy industry, as well as
predefined criteria of  the Department of  Energy, Mineral Management Service and relevant coastal
authorities. At times,  empty oil transporters will be required to store oil recovered/reprocessed 
from an anticipated oil leak due to the hurricane.  Routine oil rig platform shutdowns should be
rehearsed so that the operations can be decommissioned in anticipation of emergency hurricane conditions.

Emergency parts and supplies should be provided for together with the applicable vendors and                                                      
backup vendors in an emergency. The Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) criteria predefines
the shelf life of major engineering parts and anticipated replacement schemes. These key parts
should be inventoried with replacement times aged on trouble management systems.

Major hurricanes also require special preparations by nuclear power plant personnel.
These preparations include the maintenance of a Contingency Plan, Disaster Recovery Plan and
rehearsals to shut down the nuclear power plant on an emergency basis. Rehearsals are necessary
to ensure that the automatic shutdown capabilities at the nuclear power plant operate as intended in an
emergency under hurricane conditions.  The Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) criteria described
above applies to critical nuclear power plant engineering parts/ design. Trouble Escalation systems
and processes apply to nuclear power plant operations, as well as most engineering applications.
The underground piping infrastructure of a nuclear power plant requires separate consideration
to anticipate damages due to a major hurricane, flood or earthquake.     3)

All operations in the private and public sector should maintain Contingency and Disaster Recovery Plans tailored to the special requirements under hurricane conditions, as well as other natural disasters. Routine rehearsals of the contingency and disaster recovery plans should be performed to ensure that installation personnel can accomplish facility shutdowns quickly if the need to do so arises.
The turnover of key personnel is an issue due to corporate takeovers, job changes, retirements and deaths.  Accordingly, the contingency and disaster recovery plans must be updated periodically to reflect these routine personnel changes, reassignments and corporate restructuring.

Some data processing systems, telecommunications systems and cloud computing data centers may operate with data redundancy, backup computing infrastructure, remote job entry capabilities and
alternate vendors/subcontractors in case traffic must be rerouted due to a hurricane or other natural disaster.

Credits: First Published on Blogcritics
http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/the-a...of-hurricane-irene-and/



References:
1) http://www.ready.gov/america/beinformed/hurricanes.html

2) http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/

3) http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collection...nt-status/event/en.html]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Aftermath_of_Hurricane_Irene_and_Future_Emergency_Management_Issues-822-1761809-212979-What_to_do_in_a_major_hurricane_to_anticipate.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Aftermath_of_Hurricane_Irene_and_Future_Emergency_Management_Issues-822-1761809-212979-What_to_do_in_a_major_hurricane_to_anticipate.html Mon, 5 Sep 2011 15:57:02 +0000
<![CDATA[Hurricane Irene (2011) Quick Tip by BaronSamedi3]]> http://www.lunch.com/whatcanisay/reviews/d/UserReview-Hurricane_Irene_2011_-232-1759878-212858.html http://www.lunch.com/whatcanisay/reviews/d/UserReview-Hurricane_Irene_2011_-232-1759878-212858.html Thu, 1 Sep 2011 17:38:38 +0000 <![CDATA[Hurricane Irene (2011) Quick Tip by Count_Orlok_22]]>
UPDATE:
Well, after a lot of wind and a lot of rain, the trees are still standing, the power never went out, and everything's already gone pretty much back to normal. The storm just kind of fizzled out. How anticlimactic.]]>
http://www.lunch.com/thatsbeat/reviews/d/UserReview-Hurricane_Irene_2011_-138-1759878-212208.html http://www.lunch.com/thatsbeat/reviews/d/UserReview-Hurricane_Irene_2011_-138-1759878-212208.html Sun, 28 Aug 2011 19:55:10 +0000
<![CDATA[Hurricane Irene (2011) Quick Tip by Sharrie]]> Irene. 3 airports in NYC & Philadelphia & Boston airports are closed until the tropical storm (downgraded from hurricane) is over. So, if you are in the Eastern coast of U.S., you are not going anywhere for the next 2 days or so!]]> http://www.lunch.com/airtravel/reviews/d/UserReview-Hurricane_Irene_2011_-129-1759878-212202.html http://www.lunch.com/airtravel/reviews/d/UserReview-Hurricane_Irene_2011_-129-1759878-212202.html Sun, 28 Aug 2011 13:37:19 +0000 <![CDATA[Hurricane Irene (2011) Quick Tip by Sharrie]]>
Stay safe, Americans!]]>
http://www.lunch.com/businessmatters/reviews/d/UserReview-Hurricane_Irene_2011_-132-1759878-212201.html http://www.lunch.com/businessmatters/reviews/d/UserReview-Hurricane_Irene_2011_-132-1759878-212201.html Sun, 28 Aug 2011 13:18:26 +0000
<![CDATA[The Great Wall of China- Yesterday, Today and the FutureThe history of the Great Wall Quick Tip by JSMaresca]]> "The Great Wall- History and Possibilities for Future Use "?]]> http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Great_Wall_of_China_Yesterday_Today_and_the_FutureThe_history_of_the_Great_Wall-822-1749071-211484.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Great_Wall_of_China_Yesterday_Today_and_the_FutureThe_history_of_the_Great_Wall-822-1749071-211484.html Sun, 14 Aug 2011 22:35:06 +0000 <![CDATA[ Evolution of Fission to Fusion Power and the ITER]]>
Currently, there are 438 nuclear power reactors in 30 countries. The IAEA
(International Atomic Energy Agency) estimates at least 60 new nuclear power
plants in the next 15 years.   1)    The current nuclear power plant technology requires very
careful planning so that nuclear power plants are not built proximate to earthquake faults
for very obvious reasons.  In addition, a nuclear power plant design requires accessible piping in
the periphery of the plant, a disaster recovery plan and extensive contingency planning and
waste disposal . The Nuclear Regulatory Commission grants licenses and predefines standards.  2)

There are two acceptable storage methods for spent fuel after it is removed from the reactor core:

Spent Fuel Pools - Currently, most spent nuclear fuel is safely stored in specially designed pools at
individual reactor sites around the country. 

Dry Cask Storage -When pool capacity is reached, licensees may move toward use of the
above-ground dry storage casks.

In the event a power company decides to close its nuclear power plant permanently, the facility
must be decommissioned by safely removing it from service.  Residual radioactivity must be
reduced to a level that permits the release of the property and termination of the operating license.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has strict rules governing nuclear power plant decommissioning.
These rules involve cleanup of radioactively contaminated plant systems and structures , as well as 
removal of the radioactive fuel. These requirements protect workers and the general public during
the entire decommissioning process and thereafter .  To be acceptable, decommissioning must be
completed within 60 years of the plant ceasing operations. A time beyond that would be considered
only when necessary to protect public health and safety in accordance with NRC regulations.      3)

Transitioning from the current nuclear power fission plants to ITER-Fusion Power Plants will require
a significant decommissioning effort for nuclear power plants worldwide ,  transportation of residual
nuclear waste disposal and plant customization to the ITER-Tokamak Fusion Device or its operating
equivalent.  Again, since the Tokamak Fusion Device will be quite costly to build, strict care must be
exercised in building these new devices away from earthquake zones or places where there could be
potentially extensive flooding.

The Tokamak is a device employed in nuclear-fusion research for magnetic confinement of plasma.
It consists of a complex system of magnetic fields that confine the plasma of reactive charged particles
in a hollow, doughnut-shaped container. The tokamak (an acronym from the Russian words for toroidal
magnetic confinement) was developed in the mid-1960s by Soviet plasma physicists. It produces the highest plasma temperatures, densities, and confinement durations of any confinement device.    4)

Achievements like these have led fusion science to an exciting threshold.  The long sought-after plasma
energy breakeven point describes the moment when plasmas in a fusion device release at least as much energy as is required to produce them.  The current record for energy release is held by JET, which succeeded in generating 70% of input power. Scientists have now designed the next-step device-ITER-which will produce more power than it consumes: for 50 MW of input power, 500 MW of output power will be produced.  5)

Graphene is the thinnest possible material and its strength is about 200 times stronger than steel.
Graphene conducts electricity better than any material known in the engineering art
at room temperature.  Accordingly,  graphine may be cosidered for electrical components associated with fusion energy projects.  6)    The scientific goal of the ITER project is to deliver ten times the power
consumed.  7)

"The EAST project research results will be significant for the International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor, or ITER, in terms of basic research in engineering technology and physics," said Wan Yuanxi,
who is in charge of the project.  Wan Yuanxi said ITER will also be a full superconducting experimental
Tokamak fusion device with an advanced configuration.  The program is still in its evolving stages.

Participants include the USA, Russia, Japan,  the European Union, China, India and the Republic of Korea.   There is also a burgeoning Livermore ITER Project.  Controlled nuclear fusion is seen as an efficient way for people to generate infinite, clean energy to offset the scarcity of  oil and coal.  8)   9)

The implications of fusion power will be profound.  First, more power will be produced than consumed.
In addition, the fusion power reactor may ( in time )  be appended to a desalination water plant to reduce the cost of producing water for use by consumers.  Even solar energy is being considered as a potential means of reducing the high costs of the desalination process.  Commercializing desalination plants and  cost containment is a major research challenge for countries throughout Asia, Africa, the Middle East and even in the USA. 

Later on this century, fusion powered space vehicles may be employed to go to the moon Titan where
there is believed to be vast reserves of hydrocarbons .  A prime research goal will be to perfect
the multiplier of fuel consumed in order to create fuel produced for space travel.

These hydrocarbon rich elements are the building blocks for amino acids necessary for the formation of life. Titan's surface temperature appears to be about -178°C (-289°F). Methane appears to be below its saturation pressure near Titan's surface. Scientists believe lakes of ethane exist that contain dissolved methane. Titan's methane, through continuing photochemistry, is converted to ethane, acetylene, ethylene,  and (when combined with nitrogen) hydrogen cyanide.   10)



References:
1) http://www.invap.net/nucsnew/images/pdfs/197..._Reactors_Worldwide.pdf

2) http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage.html

3) http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collection...ts/decommissioning.html

4) http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Tokamak+design

5) http://www.iter.org/sci/beyonditer

6) http://bigthink.com/ideas/24381

7) http://www.iter.org/proj/itermission

8) http://english.cas.ac.cn

9) http://science.howstuffworks.com/fusion-reactor.htm/printable

10) http://www.solarviews.com/eng/titan.htm

Credits: First Published on Blogcritics
It should now appear at:
http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/nucle...-plants-and-transition/]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Nuclear_Fission_Power_Plants_and_Transition_to_ITER_and_Fusion_Nuclear_Power-822-1750336-210281-Evolution_of_Fission_to_Fusion_Power_and_the_ITER.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Nuclear_Fission_Power_Plants_and_Transition_to_ITER_and_Fusion_Nuclear_Power-822-1750336-210281-Evolution_of_Fission_to_Fusion_Power_and_the_ITER.html Thu, 14 Jul 2011 01:44:19 +0000
<![CDATA[ Potentially Unlimited Energy Sources for Centuries to Come]]> oil and natural gas reserves on Earth according to findings of  NASA's Cassini spacecraft.
The hydrocarbons literally rain from the sky. Huge deposits are collected in lakes and dune formations.
Practically speaking, commercialization is decades away and maybe the stuff of the next century.
Nonetheless,   Saturn's Titan has the potential to become a permanent game changer sooner
rather than later.

"Titan is just covered in carbon-bearing material, it's a giant factory of organic chemicals,"
says Ralph Lorenz, Cassini radar team member from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. "This vast carbon inventory is an important window into the geology and climate history of Titan .  1)

The Titan Mare Explorer, or TiME, will perform the first direct inspection of an ocean
environment beyond Earth by landing in, and floating on, a large methane-ethane sea
on this murky and complex moon.

The TiME capsule  launches circa 2016 and reaches Titan by 2023, by parachuting onto the moon's
second-largest northern sea, the Ligeia Mare. For 3 months, the capsule
will study the composition and behavior of the sea and its interaction with Titan's weather and climate.
TiME also seeks to gather evidence of the complex organic chemistry that may be active on Titan . 2)

A lightning storm has been raging on Saturn since mid-January, making the tempest the
longest-lasting storm ever detected in our solar system, astronomers noted recently.
The lightning flashes are 10,000 times stronger than flashes on Earth according to research team
member Georg Fischer, of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Lightning storms on Saturn usually
occur about 35 degrees south of Saturn's equator in a place scientists call Storm Alley.
The internal energy of Saturn appears to power the storms and triggers vertical convection,
or heat transfer, of water clouds, the Austrian Academy's Fischer said.

Confirmation earlier this year of Titan's hydrocarbon lakes makes the Saturn moon the
first place other than Earth where open bodies of liquid have been found.
This means that the strength of  Titan's magnetic field is constantly changing ,
leaving its surface more vulnerable to damaging cosmic rays.  3)  4)
Without stable protection from radiation "the existence of life is very unlikely"
according to Morente. The presence of crude oil implies that an animal life form,
at one point, existed on that planet, and their bodies decomposed without
enough air/gas to decompose properly (as is how the crude oil formed on earth).
We won't know for certain until the heavenly body is explored more fully. 

Titan's water is frozen into chunks as hard as granite. If those ice "rocks" melted,
the environment could become more hospitable to the building blocks of life.
With liquid water, the planet could host the formation of amino acids and then
full proteins, which drive all biochemistry and set the stage for more complex molecules
like a huge prebiotic casserole.  5)  6)

Cassini's observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, have given scientists a glimpse of
what Earth might have been like before life evolved. They now believe Titan possesses
many parallels to Earth, including lakes, rivers, channels, dunes, rain, snow, clouds,
mountains and possibly volcanic activity.

The spray of icy particles from the surface jets collectively forms a towering plume three
times taller than the width of Enceladus. The moon’s diameter is about 500 kilometers
(around 300 miles).   It is believed that the plume feeds particles into Saturn's most
expansive ring, the E ring. Already in the extended mission, the spacecraft has come as
close as 25 kilometers (15 miles) from the surface of the moon.  7)

The science goals of space study on Saturn are to understand the sources, as well as
the losses of Saturn's plasma, its acceleration and transport, and the contributions that
plasma makes to satellite resurfacing and to Titan's atmospheric processes. These processes
all significantly affected the evolution of the Saturn system over its nearly 5 billion years of existence.
By understanding the changes brought about by these processes and by sampling the isotopic
and elemental composition within Saturn's vast magnetosphere, we will add yet another piece to
the puzzle of how the solar system formed and evolved.  8)

Suppose there is a large quantity of natural gas on Titan. How would this natural gas be
extracted and transported to the earth? These details will be the subject of the science
this century and next.

Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) is an innovative technology designed to enable
the development of offshore gas resources that would otherwise remain untapped .  9)
Due to environmental or economic factors,  it is not viable to develop these sources via a land-based
LNG operation. FLNG technology also provides a number of environmental and economic advantages.

Since all processing is done at the gas field, there is no requirement for long pipelines to shore,
compression units to pump the gas to shore, dredging and jetty construction, and onshore construction
of an LNG processing plant. These advantages significantly reduce the environmental footprint anywhere.
 
In addition, environmental disturbance will be minimized during decommissioning because the
facility can easily be disconnected and removed before being refurbished and re-deployed elsewhere.
Translating these manufacturing advantages onto Titan, the natural gas could be extracted and refined
without leaving the planet. Much of the refinery and transport might be done by unmanned
robotic vehicles, dirigibles and robots emulating human mechanical capabilities. There are other technological issues to overcome like transporting the FLNG from Titan to the earth or to nearby planets where significant manufacturing can occur.

References:

1) http://www.jhuapl.edu/newscenter/pressreleases/2011/110506.asp

2) "                 "

3) "                 "

4) http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009...n-lightning-storms.html

5) http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008...n-lightning-life_2.html

6) http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/science/index.cfm

7) http://www.jhuapl.edu/newscenter/pressreleases/2011/110506.asp

8) http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Cassini-Huygens/SEMBJCHHZTD_0.html

9) "http://www.oilandgasiq.com/glossary/floating-liquefied-natural-gas-(flng)/

Credits: Printed First on Blogcritics- Science/Tech Section 7-5- 2011]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Titan_A_Solar_Body_Rich_in_Hydrocarbons-822-1749349-209912-Potentially_Unlimited_Energy_Sources_for_Centuries.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Titan_A_Solar_Body_Rich_in_Hydrocarbons-822-1749349-209912-Potentially_Unlimited_Energy_Sources_for_Centuries.html Wed, 6 Jul 2011 01:36:08 +0000
<![CDATA[The Great Wall of China- Yesterday, Today and the FutureThe history of the Great Wall Quick Tip by JSMaresca]]> Supercontents and Cafe Libre Communities.]]> http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Great_Wall_of_China_Yesterday_Today_and_the_FutureThe_history_of_the_Great_Wall-822-1749071-209737.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-The_Great_Wall_of_China_Yesterday_Today_and_the_FutureThe_history_of_the_Great_Wall-822-1749071-209737.html Sun, 3 Jul 2011 01:16:07 +0000 <![CDATA[ The Great Wall - History and Possibilities for Future Use]]> from the north. The first sections were built in the Seventh Century BC. At that time, China
was segmented into many small states and political municipalities of varying sizes.

Scores of troops, conscripts and others were used to construct the Great Wall of China.
The materials employed were those available proximate to the wall itself. Near Beijing, 
the wall is constructed from quarried limestone blocks. In other locations, the construction consists
of  quarried granite or fired brick. Where such materials are used, two finished walls are erected with
packed earth and rubble fill placed in between with a final paving to form a single unit.

In some areas the blocks were cemented with a mixture of gooey rice and egg whites. In the extreme western desert locations, where good materials are in scarce supply , the wall was constructed from dirt packed between rough wood secured with woven mats. The wall consists mainly of 3 types of
structures;  namely,  Beacon towers for defense and soldier accommodation, Walls for fortification purposes and Passes for allowing troop and delivery-route movements in various political subdivisions.

The Great Wall is high - high enough that you would need scaling ladders. There were garrisons
of soldiers posted along the wall route. They lived in little turrets built to be observation posts.  
Anyone mounting a ladder to scale the wall would have to face armed soldiers at the top .
This defensive arrangement slowed invaders considerably but not totally.  1)

After subjugating and uniting China from seven Warring States, the emperor connected
and extended four old  fortification walls along northern China circa 700 B.C. (over 2500 years ago). Armies were stationed along the wall as a first line of  defense against the invading nomadic Hsiung Nu tribes north of China (the Huns). Signal fires from the Wall provided early warnings of an attack. 2)  4)

The structure was envisioned as a group of independent walls for different states when first built.
The term  "Great" Wall came into use in the Qin Dynasty. Emperor Qin Shihuang succeeded in
his effort to have the walls joined together to ward off the invasions from the Huns in
the north. From then on, the Great Wall has served as a monument of the Chinese nation .

The Great Wall traverses great  deserts, plains, grasslands, mountains and plateaus. 
It stretches  nearly 8,851.8 kilometers (5,500 miles) from the east to west.
The Great Wall has a history of over 2000 years. A few of the sections are now in ruins
or have worn away to practically nothing. Nonetheless, the structure remains one
of the most sought after attractions on earth due to its architectural
splendor and continuing historical significance.

The Great Wall we see today was constructed in great part  during the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644).
The structure starts from the Hushan Great Wall in the east to Jiayuguan Pass in the west crossing
Liaoning, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shaanxi,
Gansu and Qinghai.  The Great Wall isn't actually a single, continuous wall - it's a series of separate
fortifications linked by hill defenses, rivers and trenches of various depths.

Over the centuries , the Great Wall was rebuilt, modified or extended . For over 2,000 years, 
millions of Chinese people were drafted to work on the task. The primary purpose
was to protect the Chinese Empire from the Mongolians and other invaders. Most of the
Great Wall which survives today was built in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). In some areas, two walls
built in multiple dynastic periods can be seen alongside each other.

The Great Wall is not just a single structure . Other defensive works;  such as,   forts, passes and beacon towers were built along the Wall to house auxiliary soldiers, conscripts, store grain , conceal weapons, and transmit strategic military field data.

The structure evolved from continuing clashes between agricultural and nomadic economies. 
As such,  the Great Wall provided protection for continuing economic development and cultural progress. It safeguarded the trading routes such as the historic Silk Road, and secured transmission of information and transportation.

Today,  less than 30% of the Great Wall remains in good condition. Various preservation societies have
called for greater protection of this important relic.

The construction of the Great Wall continued until the beginning of the Qing Dynasty
(1644). Now,  several sections of the wall have been restored as tourist attractions
and in other places the wall is quite well preserved.  3)


In spring, when trees and plants turn green, the Great Wall wanders among the burgeoning vegetation.
Everything looks so full of life . Spring is the time to avoid the tourist crowds of the summer and
autumn. Visitors should expect temperatures varying from 10 to 25ºC (50-77ºF).

Many historic legends and stories about the Great Wall evolved over the centuries  following
the construction. Since that time,   stories have spread around the country.  i.e.

o Meng Jiangnu's Bitter Weeping
o Legend of the Widow's Tower
o Story of the Happy Meeting Pass
o The Origin of The "Metal Soup" Great Wall

The Great Wall will be protected by evolving statutes according to Dong Yaohui, secretary-general
of the China Great Wall Society. The Beijing Bureau of Cultural Relics is soliciting expert advice
over the drafting of a law to protect the Great Wall, a famous landmark . The legal protections will focus
on protecting the Great Wall, its attached buildings and surrounding environment in the Beijing sections.
Intrepid hikers will not be permitted to explore unprotected sections of the Great Wall around Beijing .
The Ming wall construction is what remains today. It begins at Shanhai Pass in Hebei province and ends in the west at Jiayuguan Pass in Gansu province at the edge of the Gobi Desert. There is not much to see in the last 500 kilometers (310 miles) as little remains except for broken stones and rubble.

Parts of the Great Wall may be utilized as roadways for small vehicles. The structure could be useful for
laying solar energy panels to power adjoining municipalities for centuries to come. The Great Wall
continues to be an international tourist attraction for visitors throughout the world. From the moon ,
the Great Wall is not very visible.


The Great Wall of China was built to protect the Chinese Empire from marauders from the north. The first sections were built in the Seventh Century BC. At that time, China was segmented into many small states and political municipalities of varying sizes.

Scores of troops, conscripts and others were used to construct the Great Wall of China. The materials employed were those available proximate to the wall itself. Near Beijing, the
wall is constructed from quarried limestone blocks. In other locations, the construction consists of quarried granite or fired brick. Where such materials are used, two finished walls are erected with packed earth and rubble fill placed in between with a final paving to form a single unit.

In some areas the blocks were cemented with a mixture of gooey rice and egg whites. In the extreme western desert locations, where good materials are in scarce supply , the wall was constructed from dirt packed between rough wood secured with woven mats. The wall consists mainly of 3 types of
structures;  namely,  Beacon towers for defense and soldier accommodation, Walls for fortification purposes and Passes for allowing troop and delivery-route movements in various political subdivisions.

The Great Wall  is high - high enough that you would need scaling ladders. There were garrisons of soldiers posted along the wall route. They lived in little turrets built to be observation posts. Anyone mounting a ladder to scale the wall would have to face armed soldiers at the top . This defensive arrangement slowed invaders considerably but not totally.

After subjugating and uniting China from seven Warring States, the emperor connected and extended four old  fortification walls along northern China circa 700 B.C. (over 2500 years ago). Armies were stationed along the wall as a first line of  defense against the invading nomadic Hsiung Nu tribes north of China (the Huns). Signal fires from the Wall provided early warnings of an attack.

The structure was envisioned as a group of independent walls for different states when first built. The term Great Wall came into use in the Qin Dynasty. Emperor Qin Shihuang succeeded in
his effort to have the walls joined together to ward off the invasions from the Huns in the north. From then on, the Great Wall has served as a monument of the Chinese nation.

The Great Wall traverses great  deserts, plains, grasslands, mountains and plateaus. It stretches  nearly 8,851.8 kilometers (5,500 miles) from the east to west. The Great Wall has a history of over 2000 years. A few of the sections are now in ruins or have worn away to practically nothing. Nonetheless, the structure remains one of the most sought after attractions on earth due to its architectural splendor and continuing historical significance.

The Great Wall we see today was constructed in great part  during the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644). The structure starts from the Hushan Great Wall in the east to Jiayuguan Pass in the west crossing Liaoning, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai. The Great Wall isn't actually a single, continuous wall - it's a series of separate fortifications linked by hill defenses, rivers and trenches of various depths.

Over the centuries , the Great Wall was rebuilt, modified or extended . For over 2,000 years, millions of Chinese people were drafted to work on the task. The primary purpose was to
protect the Chinese Empire from the Mongolians and other invaders. Most of the Great Wall which survives today was built in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). In some areas, two walls
built in multiple dynastic periods can be seen alongside each other.

The Great Wall is not just a single structure . Other defensive works; such as, forts, passes and beacon towers were built along the Wall to house auxiliary soldiers, conscripts, store grain , conceal weapons, and transmit strategic military field data.

The structure evolved from continuing clashes between agricultural and nomadic economies. As such, the Great Wall provided protection for continuing economic development and cultural progress. It safeguarded the trading routes such as the historic Silk Road, and secured transmission of information
and transportation.

Today,  less than 30% of the Great Wall remains in good condition. Various preservation societies have called for greater protection of this important relic.

The construction of the Great Wall continued until the beginning of the Qing Dynasty (1644). Now, several sections of the wall have been restored as tourist attractions and in other places the wall is
quite well preserved.  3)


In spring, when trees and plants turn green, the Great Wall wanders among the burgeoning vegetation. Everything looks so full of life . Spring is the time to avoid the tourist crowds of the summer and autumn.
Visitors should expect temperatures varying from 10 to 25ºC (50-77ºF).

Many historic legends and stories about the Great Wall evolved over the centuries  following the construction. Since that time,   stories have spread around the country.  i.e.

o Meng Jiangnu's Bitter Weeping
o Legend of the Widow's Tower
o Story of the Happy Meeting Pass
o The Origin of The "Metal Soup" Great Wall

The Great Wall will be protected by evolving statutes according to Dong Yaohui, secretary-general of the China Great Wall Society. The Beijing Bureau of Cultural Relics is soliciting expert advice over the drafting of a law to protect the Great Wall, a famous landmark . The legal protections will focus
on protecting the Great Wall, its attached buildings and surrounding environment in the Beijing sections.
Intrepid hikers will not be permitted to explore unprotected sections of the Great Wall around Beijing .
The Ming wall construction is what remains today. It begins at Shanhai Pass in Hebei province and ends in the west at Jiayuguan Pass in Gansu province at the edge of the Gobi Desert. There is not much to see in the last 500 kilometers (310 miles) as little remains except for broken stones and rubble.

Parts of the Great Wall may be utilized as roadways for small vehicles. The structure could be useful for laying solar energy panels to power adjoining municipalities for centuries to come. The Great Wall continues to be an international tourist attraction for visitors throughout the world.   From the moon ,
the Great Wall is not very visible.

Image:
ttp://static-l3.blogcritics.org/11/07/01/162821/5...0-.jpg?t=20110701085101

References:
1) http://www.travelchinaguide.com/china_great_wall

2) and 4)  http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/greatwall

3) http://www.travelchinaguide.com/china_great_wall


Credits: First Published on Blogcritics  7-1- 2011]]>
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<![CDATA[Prime Minister Netanyahu's Speech to the Congress Quick Tip by JSMaresca]]> Speech to the Congress and the reaction thereof. A number of members had very
unique perspectives to share.]]>
http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Prime_Minister_Netanyahu_s_Speech_to_the_Congress-822-1743702-208709.html http://www.lunch.com/DrJosephSMaresca/reviews/d/UserReview-Prime_Minister_Netanyahu_s_Speech_to_the_Congress-822-1743702-208709.html Mon, 13 Jun 2011 04:17:49 +0000
<![CDATA[ Middle East Peace Themes]]> An Analysis of the Speech of  By Prime Minister Netanyahu to the Congress (5-24-11)
                                                                       By: Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

The article will begin with excerpts of the speech followed by critique of  Dr. Joseph S. Maresca.

Excerpts:

In an unstable Middle East, Israel is the one anchor of stability...
You don’t need to do nation building in Israel. We’re already built.
You don’t need to export democracy to Israel. We’ve already got it.
You don’t need to send American troops to defend Israel. We defend ourselves...
Support for Israel’s security is a wise investment in our common future...


Analysis:
Israel is a stable democracy which can stand relatively on its own in an area of the
world with historic hostilities.

Millions of young people are determined to change their future. We all look at them.
They muster courage. They risk their lives. They demand dignity. They desire liberty. 
These extraordinary scenes in Tunis and Cairo, evoke those of Berlin and Prague in 1989.
Yet as we share their hopes, but we also must remember that those hopes could be snuffed
out as they were in Tehran in 1979...


Analysis:
The Middle East now is a caldron or hotbed of discontent due to years of neglect by potentates
at the top of a number of host governments. The situation is fluid and hopefully the scales will
tilt in favor of freedom because people everywhere are demanding it in the same way they did so
in Berlin and Prague in 1989.

We have a free press, independent courts, an open economy,
rambunctious parliamentary debates. You think you guys are tough on one another in Congress?
Come spend a day in the Knesset. Be my guest...


Analysis:
Israel is a country with open debate just like America. In contrast, many of its neighbors
punish the notion of open debate and civil disobedience . Recently, Syria killed hundreds in a
recent crackdown triggered by the arrests of teens in an uprising.
The regime's days are numbered.

Of the 300 million Arabs in the Middle East and North Africa, only Israel’s Arab citizens enjoy
real democratic rights. I want you to stop for a second and think about that. Of those 300 million Arabs, less than one-half of one-percent are truly free, and they’re all citizens of Israel! ...
The tyranny in Tehran brutalizes its own people. It supports attacks against American troops
in Afghanistan and Iraq. It subjugates Lebanon and Gaza. It sponsors terror worldwide...


Analysis:
Prime Minister Netanyahu claims that the truly free Arabs are the ones living under constitutional
processes in the State of Israel.     Iran is the protagonist in the region and only regime change
has any chance of changing the adverse power calculus.  As soon as Iran gives up its nuclear program
and replaces it with alternative energies,  Iran will blossom once again and enter into the community
of nations as a welcome trading partner. Iran sits in a significant earthquake zone and its nuclear
facilities pose a grave threat to itself.  Iran should be building its civil engineering infrastructure in
anticipation of earthquake disturbances which could rock the region as experienced in the past.


I am willing to make painful compromises to achieve this historic peace. As the leader of Israel,
it is my responsibility to lead my people to peace...
We’ve helped the Palestinian economy by removing hundreds of barriers and roadblocks to the
free flow of goods and people. The results have been nothing short of remarkable.
The Palestinian economy is booming. It’s growing by more than 10% a year.

    Palestinian cities look very different today than they did just a few years ago. They have
shopping malls, movie theaters, restaurants, banks. They even have e-businesses. This is all happening without peace. Imagine what could happen with peace. Peace would herald a new day for both peoples. It would make the dream of a broader Arab-Israeli peace a realistic possibility...
It is time for President Abbas to stand before his people and say… “I will accept a Jewish state.”


Analysis:
Americans know very little about a thriving Palestinian economy. Many Americans hear only
of the poverty of the Palestinians- particularly the misery on the Gaza Strip. There is a functioning
economic model for Palestinian autonomy and this model should be strengthened and applied
throughout the territories. In addition, the Israel Kibbutz organizational apparatus can keep people
living and working locally so that they do not have to travel through checkpoints.  An American
military base can act as a further buffer to guarantee the peace and make deliveries through
checkpoint areas. The concept of victory gardens and growing food locally can provide ample foodstuffs.
Solar energy is another possibility for establishing energy independence.

 Grama and White studied how milk was made in India. Then, they proceeded to blend Grama's knowledge of Thermodynamics with advances in photovoltaics. The pair looks forward to
manufacturing solar powered refrigerators run by simple microprocessors. The solar cooler could preserve cow's milk, yogurt and medicines in villages throughout the world lacking electricity.

It is time for President Abbas to stand before his people and say… “I will accept a Jewish state.
Those six words will change history. They will make clear to the Palestinians that this conflict must come to an end...
 In any peace agreement that ends the conflict, some settlements will end up beyond Israel’s borders.
The precise delineation of those borders must be negotiated. We will be very generous on the
size of a future Palestinian state. But as President Obama said, the border will be different
from the one that existed on June 4, 1967. Israel will not return to the indefensible lines of 1967.
We recognize that a Palestinian state must be big enough to be viable,
independent and prosperous...   As for Jerusalem, only a democratic Israel has protected freedom of worship for all faiths in the city. Jerusalem must never again be divided. Jerusalem must remain the united capital of Israel


Analysis:
The ball is in the Palestinian court right now. Recognizing Israel's right to exist would be a
simple neighborly gesture which could change the history of the area forever.  Israel itself
will be generous in agreeing to a sizable Palestinian future state but this will not include a
return to the pre-1967 borders because these boundaries are indefensible. Israel can
build outward into the Mediterranean Sea utilizing underwater cities
and building man made islands/ infrastructure on top of the water along the 110 mile border
with the Mediterranean Sea. Jerusalem is non-negotiable; however, there are Arab quarters
already in Jerusalem with Arabs living adjacent to both Christians and Jews.   1)

This is the peace I plan to forge with a Palestinian partner committed to peace.
But you know very well, that in the Middle East, the only peace that will hold is a peace you can defend...
In recent years, Israel withdrew from South Lebanon and Gaza.
But we didn’t get peace. Instead, we got 12,000 thousand rockets fired from those areas on our cities, on our children, by Hezbollah and Hamas. The UN peacekeepers in Lebanon failed to
prevent the smuggling of this weaponry. The European observers in Gaza
evaporated overnight...

So if Israel simply walked out of the territories, the flow of weapons into a future
Palestinian state would be unchecked. Missiles fired from it could reach virtually
every home in Israel in less than a minute. I want you to think about that too.
Imagine that right now we all had less than 60 seconds to find shelter from an
incoming rocket. Would you live that way? Would anyone live that way?
Well, we aren’t going to live that way either.     The truth is that Israel needs unique
security arrangements because of its unique size...


Peace can be achieved only around the negotiating table. The Palestinian attempt to impose
a settlement through the United Nations will not bring peace. It should be forcefully opposed
by all those who want to see this conflict end...


Analysis
Israel is aware quite painfully of all of the non-compliance issues with terrorists of every kind
in the region. The maxim "Trust but Verify" is the order of the day. Otherwise, Israel will have
armed conflict right in its midst. An American military base might help to deflect some of
the conflict along with United Nations troops and other defensive mechanisms.
A monorail system could transport thousands of people over the ground making the
streets safer to traverse.

So I say to President Abbas: Tear up your pact with Hamas! Sit down and negotiate!
Make peace with the Jewish state! And if you do, I promise you this.
Israel will not be the last country to welcome a Palestinian state as a new member
of the United Nations. It will be the first to do so...


Analysis:
President Abbas should make peace with Israel directly as a sign of goodwill aimed
at changing history forever. Take a look at biblical prophecy.
Ezekiel revealed that the Moslem militia will not form the caliphate or global dominance.
Jesus will intercede and disband/ destroy the al Qaeda forces (Ezekiel 38:18-39:6).
Bible prophecy will be triumphant and perhaps the 1000 year peace will follow .

I,  Dr. Joseph S. Maresca concur.


Reference:
1) http://www.traveladventures.org/continents/asia/jerusalem3.shtml]]>
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<![CDATA[ Icelandic Volcano and Implications]]> By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

Smoke and steam continue to hang over the volcano under the Eyjafjallakokull glacier in Iceland causing ice to melt and local flooding. The most recent volcanic eruption in Iceland started on April 14, 2010.

The Eyjafjallajökull eruption closely followed an eruption in Fimmvörðuháls, from March 20 thru April 12.

The Icelandic volcano sent ash over 20,000 feet high. When the ash settles, citizens should remain indoors. People with lung diseases should have their inhalers and medications on hand at all times. There are flight cancellations throughout Europe.

Geologists explain that a high concentration of volcanic activity is due to a combination of Eyjafjallakokull's position  on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and a volcanic hot spot underneath the island. The island straddles the Eurasian and North American Plates. Most volcanic activity is concentrated along the plate boundary which runs across the island from the south-west to the north-east of the island. Some volcanic activity occurs offshore. This includes wholly submerged submarine volcanoes and even newly formed volcanic islands such as Surtsey.

A volcano is a rupture in the surface of the earth. The crust allows magma ashes and gases to escape. Tectonic plates can diverge or converge. There is a stretching and thinning of the earth crust. Hot spots are found on rocky planets like Mars and moons.  Water vapor is the most frequent volcanic gas followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Volcanoes thrust huge amounts of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide 10-20 miles or more above the earth.

The International Civil Aviation Organization monitors ash clouds since the ash thrown into the air is a hazard to air craft. Gas emissions contribute significantly to acid rain. Existing detection systems for volcanoes include seismic readings near known sites, poison gas measurements, satellite monitoring, continuous monitoring through unmanned stations, inflection points and known behavior. Volcanoes exist on other planets. For instance, Mars has extinct volcanoes like Arsia Mons, Hecates Tholus and Olympus Mons.

Tsunamis can be caused by volcanoes, earthquakes and mudslides.  Continuously erupting volcanoes develop empty magma chambers.  At some point, the roof collapses causing a crater up to 1 kilometer in diameter. Water gushes into this crater causing a tsunami.  A tsunami can be triggered by land sliding into the sea creating huge waves.  The largest tsunamis in recent times were:

11-1- 1775     LISBON TSUNAMI        60,000 deaths

12-28-1908    SICILY                         58,000 deaths

The United States Geological Survey is tracking major volcanic activity.  Some of the more important recent hot spots are:

Egon- Flores Island, Indonesia at 1703m

Etna- Sicily at 3330m

Eyjafjoll- S. Iceland at 1666m

Reventador- Ecuador at 3562m

Arenal-Costa Rica at 1670m

Batu Tara, Komba Islands-Indonesia at 7482m

Kliuchevskoi, Russia at 4875m

Popocateptl-Mexico at 5426m

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he reviews many books for Basil & Spice. 

Looking Back:

Earthquakes Continue To Shake China Today

Earthquakes Today Rattle Baja, CA (4/2010)

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<![CDATA[ Haitian Earthquake and Atlantic Tsunami]]> Joseph S. Maresca, Ph.D.--

When the earthquake happens beneath the ocean floor, such that the earth's plates shift vertically, the movement from one plate sliding up and another sliding down causes a rush of water that can turn into a tidal wave. The earthquake in Haiti, by contrast, was underneath the land—about a dozen miles west of Port-au-Prince—and horizontally shifting. So there was motion above ground. No tsunami occurred because the shifting was horizontal.

Scientists have been theorizing about the likelihood of an Atlantic Tsunami which would threaten the Americas. A major movement of mountains and the ocean floor in Europe might qualify, as well as a huge explosion of a major volcanic area surrounding the Canary Islands. A large enough Tsunami could change the East Coast from NYC to Buffalo, New York.

No-one really knows where the Continent of Atlantis rests.  Perhaps a major Tsunami could resurrect this land masse which has been out of view for centuries.  Historians have theorized that Atlantis could be as close as Cuba or in the general vicinity.  All together, there are 9 known continents. That is, 7 are above ground.  Then, there is Atlantis and another continent somewhere between the California Coast and Japan.

The Unmanned Compliance Monitoring Device is the subject of Patent 5, 075, 857 issued 12 -24- 1991.  My patent describes earthquake monitoring by satellite with strategically placed monitoring devices on the land and sea. When I patented this earthquake design, I wanted to place these devices strategically in the USA and elsewhere to monitor the kinds of dangers we are discussing right now.

The largest earthquake since the time of Christ was in Shaanxi, China killing 800,000+ people. The largest flood or tidal wave killed nearly 4,000,000 people from China's Huang He River during Aug.1931.

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he reviews many books for Basil & Spice. 

Book Review: Green Architecture By Osman Attmann

Copyright © 2006-2010, Basil & Spice. All rights reserved.

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<![CDATA[ Oil Spill Cleanup and Recovery 5-2- 2010]]> By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

Sky Truth now estimates that 11 million gallons of oil is in the slick which is approaching land right now in the GULF region. If true, the 4-20-2010 oil spill would be the largest  in our history.  Sky Truth's estimates are from NASA and private company data.

Dr. Ian MacDonald of FSU just produced spill-sized estimates based on the United States Coast Guard aerial overflight map on 4-28-10 of 9mm gallons floating on the Gulf. A NASA/MODIS satellite image shows oil covering 2256 miles.

The catastrophe becomes infinitely worse once the oil reaches shore. Once there is a spill--all options are bad and igniting the oil can be the least damaging of the worst options. Ecological damage to fisheries, wildlife and natural wildlife refuges is perhaps the greatest concern. Sea turtles, whales and marine mammals are exposed to oil when they come to the surface to breathe. When bird feathers are covered with oil, animals have no way of regulating body temperature and die of hypothermia. The danger here is that oil will permeate the barrier islands of the Delta region and estuaries which are biologically rich.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAH) has the responsibility to protect, preserve, manage and restore the United States Coastal resources and ecosystems along 96,000 miles of the United States Shoreline. The EPA has statutory authority under the Clean Water Act Par 311 (1973) and the Oil Pollution Act(1990).  

Even under optimal conditions, 10-20% of oil can be recovered. A host of patent art is available for oil cleanup purposes. Although, an oil slick approaching the size of Delaware may be beyond any known scientific capability to contain the catastrophe in practice. There are inventions which may be able to clean up very specific areas of the spill which undermine life along the coastline.  i.e. 

United States Patent 5254266 describes an oil spill cleanup craft and method using catamaran with exceptional stability.  This is a self-contained oil spill cleanup craft and method which operates well in both rough and calm seas, is rapidly deployed, which provides high flow rate continuous separation and processing of recovered oil and water mixtures, and outputs water which is substantially free of oil and oil which is substantially free of water and other contaminants and, as such, refinery ready without further processing. The craft of the present invention can be used, for example, to clean up light and medium weight crude oil, lubricating oil, or diesel fuel that is floating on the surfaces of either fresh or salt water.

In accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a small waterplane area twin hull boat having respective pontoons attached to the base of each hull is equipped with a scoop for recovering oil and water, separation and processing equipment for separating and purifying the recovered oil and water, high volume pumps for transferring the oil and water from the scoop to the separation and processing equipment, and storage elements for storing refinery grade oil and dry sludge.

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he reviews many books for Basil & Spice.

]]>
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<![CDATA[ Oil Spill Containment 5- 7 - 2010]]> By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

The Gulf Oil Spill- An Update on Collective Efforts to Contain the Spill  

The Local Louisiana government officials and the Army Corps of Engineers are studying ways to increase the flow of water from the Mississippi River to stave off the Gulf of Mexico oil spill and prevent it from reaching land for as long as possible. Approximately 40% of the nation's vital estuaries are in the Gulf area so there is much to protect.

Booms to capture and deflect anticipated oil are being deployed at Breton National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), where thousands of brown pelicans and shorebirds nest.  The Service has begun to initiate a Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration project to address the long-term damage to impacted resources and wildlife.

The second oldest wildlife refuge in the country was established by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 1900s.  Breton, includes the Breton Island, all of the Chandeleur Islands in St. Bernard and Plaquemine Parish, LA. These safe havens provide habitat for nesting wading birds and seabirds, as well as wintering shorebirds and waterfowl.  23 species of seabirds and shorebirds frequently use the refuge, and 13 species nest on the various islands.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is providing survey missions and flood safety tips in the GULF Region. Current overflight observations around the Chandeleuer Islands are aimed at recording locations of oil, affected wildlife and establishing trajectory forecasts.  There is a potential for the westward movement of the oil. Drifter buoys have been placed near the oil slicks to provide NOAA tracking data to study the water currents and winds moving the slick toward the shore. Decreasing wind and sea conditions should allow the full spectrum of surface operations until the weekend.  NOAA's National Weather Service has created a special forecast for the incident area which may be accessed at: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/lix/

NOAA has 3 aircraft on the scene: a King Air specially equipped for photogrammetry and 2 Twin Otter aircraft one for marine mammal observations. The Coast Guard is using forecasts and graphics of oil movements prepared by NOAA's Emergency Response Division (ERD). The Marine Charting Division seeks to keep mariners out of oil areas by depicting them on electronic charts.

NOAA restricted fishing in federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico directly adjacent to the area closures enacted by Louisiana. The closure will be in effect for at least 10 days. This action is to protect consumers and the seafood industry. NOAA fisheries representatives will be meeting with fishermen this week to assist them.  Further details can be found here: http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/

British Petroleum and other industry members continue to pool efforts to lessen the flow rate of the spill from the initial estimates of 26,500 barrels a day or more. These efforts center on a number of  techniques to contain the leaks.  i.e. The techniques include installing huge containment boxes over leaks to collect the oil and send it through a mile of pipe to a ship above.

Long wands may be employed to spray chemical dispersants on the leaks at the sea floor to break up oil and keep it from rising to the surface.  There are efforts to lower a second blowout preventer onto the damaged one to seal the well.  A relief well may be drilled in lieu of the damaged one. This act may lead to plugging the damaged one ultimately.

The current efforts are critical because an out-of-control crippled blowout preventer, wellhead or control valve could spill far greater than the initial 26,500 gallons per day into the Gulf.

"Typically, a very good well in the Gulf can produce 30,000 barrels a day, but that's under control. I have no idea what an uncontrolled release would be," said the Chairman of Petroleum Engineering at Louisiana State University.

Oil Spill 2010: Clean Up And Recovery Patented Ideas

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he blogs and reviews many books for Basil & Spice. Visit the Joseph S. Maresca Writer]]>
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<![CDATA[ Planning for Hurricane, Tsunami and Cleanup 5-17- 2010]]> By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

Continuing Efforts to Contain and Clean-up the Gulf Oil Spill

SkyTruth estimated the spill rate to be 1.1 million gallons (26,500 barrels) per day, based upon the size of the slick on satellite images /  Coast Guard maps, and thickness estimates derived from visual descriptions of the slick. That places the total spill at 21 million gallons or more.

The estimate seems low based upon assumptions that there are deep-water oil wells in the Gulf of Mexico capable of producing >1.26 million gallons (30,000 barrels) of oil per day under controlled flow rates. The oil slick continues to grow in size even though it's been tackled by a host of skimmer vessels, burning, chemical dispersants, and various natural processes.

If the spill estimate is underestimated, BP and the various government responders run the risk of designing an inadequate new spill-response system that is doomed to fail the next time something like this happens. The well is being sealed by pumping mud into it. A practical concern is dispersing poisons throughout the Gulf.  Areas around the plume have reduced oxygen levels. Jelly fish, worms and other sea creatures require oxygen.  If oxygen is drained from the ecosystem--every living thing will suffer within close proximity.

Energy giant BP on Sunday marked its first success at containing oil that is gushing unabated into the Gulf of Mexico. The company indicated that it may be able to stop the flow permanently in about a week.  BP succeeded in inserting a tube into the leaking well and capturing some oil and gas.

The underwater operation involves guiding robots to insert a small tube into a 21-inch pipe, known as a riser, to funnel the oil to a ship at the surface. "It's working as planned and we are very slowly increasing the rate that is coming from the riser tool up to the surface," according to a BP senior executive vice president. "So we do have oil and gas coming to the ship now," according to the company executive.

Not all of the oil will be trapped, and more time will be required to determine just how much oil has been siphoned successfully. Preparations for a maneuver to inject mud into the well to stop the leak for good are ongoing and will be completed in seven to 10 days according to industry sources.

The insertion tube is a five foot long steel pipe about four inches in diameter with specially designed rubber baffles. The tube will be inserted into the Horizon’s riser to provide a direct connection.  The direct connection, combined with the injection of methanol, will minimize the formation of hydrates that could block the flow of hydrocarbons. The riser insertion tube will be installed about 600 feet from the wellhead.

The insertion tube will be connected to a 5,000  foot riser that will convey the hydrocarbons to the Transocean Discoverer Enterprise drillship on the surface.  Once in place, oil will flow up into the Enterprise’s riser to the surface. Once at the surface, the hydrocarbons will be processed and oil will be separated from water and gas. The oil will then be temporarily stored before being offloaded and shipped to a designated oil terminal onshore. The Enterprise is capable of processing 15,000 barrels of oil per day and storing 139,000 barrels. A support barge will also be deployed with a capacity to store 137,000 barrels of oil.

This riser insertion tube is on site and is being prepared for installation in the next few days. ROVs will assist in the installation and connections to the riser (tubing) back to the surface. Source: BP

There are reports of  huge oil plumes in the Gulf -- including one as large as 10 miles long, three miles wide and 300 feet thick as the crisis continues to approach the one month disaster anniversary.

Crude oil has been gushing unchecked into the sea from a ruptured well about a mile under the ocean's surface, threatening an ecological and economic calamity along the U.S. Gulf Coast. The spill began after an April 20 explosion on the Deepwater Horizon rig  killed 11 workers. The spill event threatens to eclipse the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill off Alaska as the worst U.S. ecological disaster. The success yesterday  followed a previous setback, when a cord taking the oil to the surface was entangled.

There are a series of possible measures for stopping the flow of oil from a ruptured underwater well.   i.e. To slow the flow of oil significantly, the engineers would like to drill a relief well. This would involve a separate well drilled in a key location into the reservoir formation.  Once the well is functioning, a series of quick, high-pressure steps are followed to eliminate the existing well. Salt water is pumped into the reservoir, followed by mud and concrete.  The mud and concrete seal the space between the oil-bearing formation and the sea bottom assuming a successful result.  The extreme depth of  the presently leaking well is nearly 5,000 feet or a mile below the ocean surface.  This depth will make the whole process more complicated, time-consuming, unpredictable and costly.

The initial containment cap used to cover the ruptured well was unsuccessful due to the problems underneath the submerged cap.  New oil wells often release a considerable amount of natural gas together with the oil. The hydrates form groups that have a slush-like consistency. Assuming high concentrations of hydrates in the water, the result has a consistency of an icy slush. The slush is known to be rigid enough to clog equipment and pipelines further complicating the recovery effort.

The ideal boom would have the oil-skimming capability built in. The cost of  enhanced booms with such a capability is significantly greater than that of unsophisticated boom apparati.   Planes have been dropping a chemical dispersant onto the oil slicks. The ocean wave Mohr-like forces may mix the dispersants but are troublesome for the booms attempting an oil containment. There are of course risks inherent in adding over 100,000 gallons of dispersants into a pristine waterway.  The environmental impact is not fully understood at this time. There are risks of pollution to the Gulf, deterioration of the Mississippi River, local wetlands, estuaries and other similar ecosystems and processes. Naturally, the risks of toxin releases are higher until a comprehensive cleanup has been accomplished.

Ideally, oil from the slicks would be captured and brought to shore for processing. There are still many uses for the oil but in most cases all the water and salt must be removed from it - a difficult, expensive and time-consuming task in view of the large quantity of material. With the quantities of oil present in the Gulf, tremendous storage capacity would be required to hold the oil/water mixture before it could be processed.

An emergency refinery that has this oil/water separation capability would be helpful but I doubt that such a capability exists for this specific project.  

Nick Pozzi, an engineer with Saudi Aramco in the Middle East cited an accident there in 1993 which generated a spill far larger than anything the United States has ever seen. An engineer who witnessed a crude spill in the Persian Gulf in 1993 says BP should use a fleet of empty supertankers to suck crude off the water's surface.  

According to Pozzi, that mishap dumped nearly 800 million gallons of oil into the Persian Gulf, which would make it more than 70 times the size of the Exxon Valdez and the current Gulf spill. Remarkably, by employing a fleet of empty supertankers to suck crude off the water's surface, Pozzi's team was able to clean up the spill and salvage 85 percent of the oil concurrently.  

There are disaster possibilities in the Gulf other than oil spills. The possibilities include hurricanes, Tsunamis and underwater earthquakes.  An earthquake in any coastal region might lead to a tsunami. The event depends upon the kind of motion caused by the earthquake. A tsunami requires a massive displacement of water. In the case of the recent Asian tsunami, a part of the earth's crust collapsed as two tectonic plates collided displacing a lot of water  subsequently causing a huge upswelling that led to the tsunami event.  If all the conditions precedent are met -- a big earthquake can lead to displacement of the earth's crust precipitating a massive displacement of water thereby leading to a dangerous tsunami in the Gulf of Mexico or anywhere along the coastal USA.  

Earthquakes don't always create tsunamis  because such events rarely happen along a subduction zone.  A subduction zone describes a condition wherein two tectonic plates move toward one another, converge and lift, releasing a tremendous amount of pressure . This dynamic becomes the focal point for a tsunami.  Luckily, the rates of subduction are very slow to occur during the year, with the average rate of convergence being well under a foot per year.  More tsunamis are created around Alaska and Japan because the tectonic plates in these vicinities move vertically and are subduction zone spheres as opposed to the California San Andreas fault which has horizontally moving tectonic plates.

A map on the USGS website shows the relative extent of influence of the New Madrid Faultline, which is quite dramatic. An 1895 Charleston, MO quake covered the eastern half of the US, including the states central to the New Madrid fault line. i.e. Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. The impact reached at least half of the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Iowa, and crossed the border into  New York and Florida.  An important issue to consider is the possibility of earth tremors beneath the sea in the region of the Gulf of Mexico, as well as the potential impact of a major earthquake along the New Madrid Faultine and the fallout as far as the Gulf.

The most widely felt tremors in North America were a series of  four that hit near New Madrid, Missouri in the 54 days from December 16, 1811 through February 7, 1812. They ranged from magnitude 7.6 to 8.2. The largest was felt from the East Coast to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. New Madrid also represents an intracontinental fault system.

Source:  Satellites Reveal Earthquake Faults Along Eastern U.S. By Robert Roy Britt  Senior Science Writer  posted March 22, 2000 on Space.com

There are samples of patent art that can be used for oil spill recovery and reuse. For instance, the Oil Spill Containment and Recovery System - US Patent 5328607 by Wyman T. Soule may be useful for this purpose. 

The Oil Spill Containment and Recovery System relates to confining and collecting oil spills wherein the oil spill is surrounded and contained within a floating barrier and the oil is pumped from within the enclosure defined by the floating barrier into floating reservoirs proximate to the barrier. The floating barrier utilizes an elongate inflatable buoyant member and an elongate suction conduit depending downwardly from the buoyant member and having a plurality of apertures formed therein through which oil flows into the suction member.

The inflatable member is inflated with air to obtain the desired buoyancy. The weight means depends downwardly from the suction conduit to maintain the buoyant member and suction conduit in a desired orientation to facilitate containment and collection of the oil spill. The buoyant member is collapsible into a substantially flat configuration such that the floating barrier and conduit can be wrapped about a reel in a compact manner which facilitates storage and transportation thereof. A pump in fluid communication with the suction conduit effects oil flow from the suction conduit to a centrifuge which separates water from the collected oil. The oil is then pumped to a floating reservoir proximate the floating barrier.- US Patent 5328607 Inventor: Soule; Wyman T. (Laguna Hills, CA)

NOAA’s Damage Assessment Remediation and Restoration Program (DARRP) is conducting a Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA).  From past experience, NOAA is concerned about oil impacts to fish, shellfish, marine mammals, turtles, birds and other sensitive resources, as well as their habitats, including wetlands, mudflats, beaches, bottom sediments and the water column. Any lost uses of these resources, for example, fishery and beach closures, will be evaluated. The focus currently is to assemble existing data on resources and their habitats and collect baseline (pre-spill impact) data.  Data on oiled resources and habitats are also being collected. 

Important Contacts : National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 

  • For NOAA media inquiries, please contact nos.media@noaa.gov
  • For response-related inquiries, please phone the Joint Information Center (JIC) at 985.902.5231 or 985.902.5240.
  • To report oil on land, or for general community information, please phone 866.448.5816.
  • To report oiled or injured wildlife, please phone 866.557.1401.
  • To learn about volunteer opportunities in all areas and what training is required, please phone  866.448.5816.
  • To discuss spill related damage claims, please phone 800.440.0858. (Source: NOAA )

This whole oil spill experience begs for future contingency planning to handle these exigencies methodically by coordination of the public and private sector energy companies. The author believes that planning at a minimum should include the following elements:

*Development of an underwater repair/escalation infrastructure to monitor energy equipment performance and routine repair on a schedular basis by the energy industry and select federal agencies or groups of federal agencies/entities/resources   i.e.NOAA, NASA, Army Corps of  Engineers, United States Patent Office  etc.  

*Planned de-commissioning or extensive repairs of energy equipment which does not meet minimum engineering thresholds like mean time between failure or anticipatory repairs scheduled from the purchase of the equipment throughout its life cycle 

*Deployment of modern submarine vehicles and unmanned devices for use at great depths

*Research and deployment of new materials and processes for application at great depths beneath the sea

*Scientific algorithmic monitoring and identification of empty supertankers and locations for quick assembly and deployment in major oil spills  i.e. transportation models, artificial intelligence "Advice Giving" systems etc.

Oil Spill 2010: Clean Up And Recovery Patented Ideas

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he blogs and reviews many books for Basil & Spice. Visit the Joseph S. Maresca Writer's Page.

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<![CDATA[ Disaster Recovery Plan Needed 5- 31- 2010]]> By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

May, 2010: Gulf Oil Spill Cleanup

The BP oil spill continues to blacken waters in the Gulf of Mexico and beyond.  Lloyd's of London has issued its first estimate of net claims from the disaster.  The world's largest insurance marketer says total claims from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig could be between $300 million and $600 million. That estimate is optimistic according to the continuing damage assessments in the Gulf area.  

The U.S. Geological Survey now estimates that the flow ranges from 12,000 barrels (504,000 gallons/1.9 million liters) to 25,000 barrels (1.05 million gallons/3.97 million liters ) per day. The team's best estimate is 12,000 to 19,000 barrels per day. In the Louisiana wetlands, scientists showed where oil washed into wild cane fields, discoloring the base of green cane and fouling the air with a horrendous smell. Many of these small islands of wetlands were surrounded by the white protective boom that has been laid out to prevent the oil from seeping in.  There have been clear breaches as witnessed by local officials over the weekend.

The latest failed option was the "top kill," a procedure by BP that was supposed to push heavy fluids known as drilling mud into the well to weigh down the gushing oil.  BP planned on capping the well with cement. The injection of a "junk shot" of shredded rubber, golf balls and other materials was envisioned to add more weight.

BP planned on implementing other remedies, such as corralling the oil for transport by pipe to a drillship at the water's surface. The company also discussed placing a new blowout preventer atop the failed one. Two relief wells are in process of deployment to stop the flow. Those relief wells may take several weeks to complete.

A typical oil production platform is self-sufficient in energy and water needs, housing electrical generation, water desalinators and all of the equipment necessary to process oil and gas such that it can be either delivered directly onshore by pipeline or to a floating platform and/or tanker loading facility. Elements in the oil/gas production process include wellhead, production manifold, production separator, glycol process to dry gas, gas compressors, water injection pumps, oil/gas export metering and main oil line pumps.  

An offshore operations platform generally consists of a considerable team of experts in the art of oil well engineering operations and continuing maintenance. i.e. 

The  OIM (offshore installation manager)  is the ultimate authority during his/her shift and makes the essential decisions  regarding the operation of the platform. There may be a hierarchy of team leaders to facilitate continuous operations.  The offshore operations engineer (OOE) is the senior technical authority on the platform. Operations coordinators manage crew changes.  Dynamic positioning operators assist with navigation, ship or vessel maneuvering (MODU), station keeping, fire and gas systems escalation in the event of  incidents. A hierarchy of "mates" meet staffing requirements of flag state, operate fast rescue craft, cargo operations and fire coordination. Crane operators run cranes for lifting cargo around the platform. Scaffolders manage scaffold building when workers are required to work at heights. Coxwains maintain the lifeboats. The catering crew handle cooking and laundry. Production techs run the production plant. Helicopter pilots navigate between the platform and the shore during crew relief or changes. Maintenance technicians manage instrumentation, electrical and mechanical systems and processes.  

This offshore operations platform should require the deployment of a Disaster Recovery Plan in order to empower the staff  the moment critical problems begin to escalate. At a minimum, the Disaster Recovery Plan should provide for de-commissioning the platform based upon a hierarchy of known emergency conditions in the oil industry, as well as pre-defined criteria of the Minerals Management Service, the Department of Energy and relevant Gulf State authorities.

The practice of rig mechanics consists of analysis of forces on the rig floor and the wellbore, mechanical advantage, management of a complex system of levers, gears and pulleys, fluid mechanics and management of hydrostatic pressure, buoyancy turbulence and friction. Daily rig operations consist of well control, casing/cementing, pipe tallies, hole cleaning, mixing drilling fluids, determining pump liner requirements, directional drilling and various sundry activities.                   

The Minerals Management Service is in existence to manage the ocean energy and mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf. Sometimes, uncontrolled pressure emanates from the well. This pressure can precipitate large accidents.  The prevention of these accidents is a regulatory issue according to Frederic Hauge, a head of Bellona, one of the leading environmental groups in Norway.  

There are engineering technologies which can centralize the experience of engineering experts onto a single knowledge base. A knowledge engineer collects the opinions of experts and develops an expert system to provide "Advice Giving" based upon the practical experience of a community of experts. The "Advice Giving" system is designed to anticipate the major problem areas in a particular technical art like engineering and rank solutions proposed by a community of experts.  There are also engineering trouble management systems which rank or escalate troubles based upon their importance or criticality. These types of systems may be employed to advise the oil industry, the Minerals Management Service, the Department of Energy, Gulf State regulatory authorities and other interested parties.

This Gulf Disaster was not a "spill," It is increasingly evident that there will be no "cleanup."  In the view of a growing number of experts, the catastrophe is of such a magnitude that to speak of a "cleanup" is meaningless.  The Washington Post reported  in a front-page story "Ian MacDonald, the Florida State University professor who has gained attention with his estimate, based on aerial images, that the leak is five times the official estimate of 5,000 barrels a day, said nature will ultimately have to fix the gulf mess. 'BP is not going to clean up this spill,' he said. 'The Coast Guard is not going to clean up this spill.  What's going to clean up this spill is the physical, chemical, biological process of the good ol', poor, downtrodden Gulf of Mexico.'" 

The scale of the spill expanded hugely with new government figures on Thursday that put the flow rate from the ruptured well at as much as four or five times BP's estimate of 5,000 barrels (210,000 gallons/795,000 liters) a day. Patent art exists for detecting an influx of gas into a marine riser of an oil rig.  US Patent 5163029 was designed for this purpose.  In accordance with the present invention, several methods are presented for the detection of gas into an offshore marine riser (e.g., riser gas). In a first embodiment of this invention, an acoustic transmitter is positioned on or nearby the subsea blowout prevent or stack and imparts continuous low frequency waves into the annular fluid in the marine riser. These imparted waves define pressure perturbations which are received by a pressure transducer positioned on the riser at a location above the acoustic transmitter. Gas detection in the riser is then indicated by determining the rate of change of certain characteristics of the output. The output characteristics are preferably the moduli and phase angles of the acoustic fundamentals and their harmonics.

In a second embodiment of this invention, continuous or pulsed pressure waves are imparted into the marine riser using a transducer ring surrounding the riser comprised of piezoelectric or magnetostrictive elements which change shape when electrically stimulated. When such electrical stimulation occurs, preferably by a pulse containing multiple harmonics, the transducer rings impacts the riser pipe causing compressional waves to be set up in the annular fluid. The compressional waves are then sensed at or near the surface and changes in amplitude or phase shift are detected for determining the presence of influx gas.  Related Patents 6371204 - Underground well kick detector - Owned by Union Oil Company of California (El Segundo, CA)

There is a "SAFETY ENCLOSURE FOR OFF-SHORE OIL RIGS." United States Patent 3730278 

The floatable safety enclosure is formed by a plurality of upwardly extending, floatable wall sections which are adapted to be floated into position around an off-shore oil or gas well platform and secured together to form a continuous, dome-like wall around the platform. 

The floatable safety enclosure of this invention obviates many of the difficulties and disadvantages previously encountered in extinguishing gas and oil well off-shore fires and provides an enclosure or dome for enclosing an off-shore platform or rig with a continuous wall which extends above the top of the rig a substantial distance so that a fire within the enclosure is quickly smothered. 

It is an object of this invention to provide a floatable safety device or enclosure for off-shore gas or oil well platforms which will prevent combustion supporting air outside of the enclosure from reaching a fire within the enclosure. Another object of the invention is to provide a safety enclosure which may be floated into position around an off-shore platform.  

Everlast Synthetic Products offers a line of new materials well-suited for demanding weather environments.  Significantly, we tend to see composites used regularly in demanding environments and the thermal protection tiles employed in the space shuttle program also provide an excellent indication of the durability of composite materials. The newest Boeing 787 is almost entirely composite-based with over 80% of the flagship aircraft being composed of durable composite materials. 

Composite sheet piling has many benefits, particularly during coastal protection and restoration projects. It is essential that any materials forming part of a seawall or other divertive protection structure are extremely resistant to the corrosive effects of sea water. Salinity acts as an accelerant in the corrosion process so the constituent materials in composite sheet piling must be highly resistant to this particular risk.

Oil Spill 2010: Planning For Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Cleanup

Oil Spill 2010: Clean Up And Recovery Patented Ideas

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he blogs and reviews many books for Basil & Spice. Visit the Joseph S. Maresca Writer's Page.

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<![CDATA[ Contingency Oil Rig and Disaster Recovery Operations]]> By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

Future Planning for the Monitoring of National and Transnational Oil Platform Operations    6-15- 2010

This article describes the Contingency Planning, Disaster Recovery Planning, sample Offshore Regulations and IT auditing which may be helpful for measuring benchmarks which relate to Offshore Installations and potentially BP offshore operations in the Gulf and elsewhere. 

The Contingency Plan is developed so that operations can be recovered in a consistent and orderly fashion. The plan should provide the methodology to ensure that the requisite personnel, facilities, data files, backup computers, supplies and suppliers can be accessed on an "as needed" basis. Sample steps are as follows.

(1) Does the installation or offshore operations platform  have a contingency plan which is current, updated and has been tested?

(2) Have copies of the contingency plan been distributed to the offshore installation manager, engineering, dynamic positioning operators, mates, crane operators, cargo operators, fire coordinators, coxwains who maintain the lifeboats, production techs who run the plant, scaffolders, heliport operators who run missions between the dock and the offshore oil rig, maintenance techs who manage instrumentation, mechanical and electrical systems, outside vendor support, outside supplier support, offsite records, insurers and all applicable governmental agencies.

(3) The plan should provide for operational priorities, backup production, suppliers and backup suppliers. For instance, unusual levels of gas detected by the offshore oil rig sensors and software should represent a high level priority.  Adverse weather warnings; such as oncoming hurricanes or earthquake activity along the New Madrid fault line are additional top level emergencies for oil platforms like the Gulf offshore.

(4) The plan should include a list of facility personnel responsible for coordinating the plan.  i.e.  Offshore Installations Manager, Offshore Operations Engineer or authorized designates The details of the plan should include the names and contact information for installation personnel, the responsibilities of key facility personnel and contact numbers for operations technicians, programmers and security.

(5) A team should be in charge of coordinating staff at a specific coordination site.  i.e. nearby platform, the local port, artificial man-made island Team leaders and alternates should be designated. Hardware and software configurations for the offshore oil installation platform and operations should be set forth. A disaster inspection team should be designated and dispatched to the emergency site.

(6) The installation should have a checklist of materials and supplies with backup suppliers needed in an emergency. Daily rig operations consist of well control, casing/cementing, pipe tallies, hole cleaning, mixing drilling fluids, determining pump liner requirements, directional drilling and various sundry activities.

(7) There should be an alternate processing or communications site with redundant file or tridundant capability for vital applications processing.  i.e. gas sensing software  An alternate site could be an artificial man-made island, adjacent oil platform or facility onshore with heliport capability.  Workers will travel to an oil platform by helicopter. They may be required to wear immersion suits and  life jackets. The crew will also receive a safety briefing before each flight, similar to consumer air flights.

(8)  The data processing and engineering operating manuals, project books and systems programming documentation should be readily accessible with offsite copies available. Some or all of this documentation may be accessible at the company website or by mobile phone.

(9) Copies of backup site agreements and vendors should be readily accessible and the documentation should be updated periodically to reflect changes. Testing of the backup site should be done periodically.

(10) Facilities for the boarding and transportation of installation personnel should be designated previously.

(11) There should be mutual assistance agreements or compacts with other firms in the industry.

(12) The plan should include a list of service bureaus who could assist with recovery in an emergency.

(13) Has the Contingency Plan incorporated applicable safety regulations. i.e.  Typical UK safety regulations are provided by way of example.

(14) Has the relevant legal counsel reviewed the Contingency Plan, Disaster Recovery Plan and the rights, duties, liabilities and recourse of the company to its strategic constituencies including foreign governments, where appropriate. Generally, the international law governing sea rights is set forth below: 

Waters under the sovereign jurisdiction of a nation or state, include the marginal sea and inland waters. The concept originated in the 17th-century . Though the doctrine that the sea must be free to all was upheld, a nation's jurisdiction over its coastal waters was also recognized over the last 300 years. Nations subscribing to the Law of the Sea observe a territorial limit of 12 nautical mi from the shore. Territorial rights include the airspace above those waters and the seabed beneath.

In the BP case, the original incident occurred 38 miles off the shores of the USA. Since the incident happened beyond the 12 mile limit, a question arises as to what law applies and which court or courts have jurisdiction.

UK Offshore Safety Regulations

There are 4 sets of UK regulations which are applicable to this particular sector and BP when operating in the UK. They are: 

a) The Offshore Installation (Safety Case) Regulations 1992 -  all mobile and fixed offshore installations which operate in UK waters must have a safety case which requires that all safety critical elements on installations must be approved by the Health and Safety Executive 

b) The Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 -These regulations are aimed at protecting offshore workers from fire and explosions . In addition, proper procedures are to be in place to provide a rapid response from emergency services should a fire or explosion occur.

c) The Offshore Installation and Pipeline Works (Management and Administration) Regulations 1995 - is aimed at the safe management of offshore installations, generally.

d) The Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc) Regulations 1996 - are concerned with the safety of offshore and onshore wells, the integrity of installations and the overall safety of the offshore working environment. Source: UK Offshore Regulations

An offshore operations platform generally consists of a considerable team of experts in the art of oil well engineering operations and continuing maintenance. i.e.

The  OIM (offshore installation manager)  is the ultimate authority during his/her shift and makes the essential decisions regarding the operation of the platform. There may be a hierarchy of team leaders to facilitate continuous operations.

The offshore operations engineer (OOE) is the senior technical authority on the platform. Operations coordinators manage crew changes.

Dynamic positioning operators assist with navigation, ship or vessel maneuvering (MODU), station keeping, fire and gas systems escalation in the event of  incidents. A hierarchy of "mates" meet staffing requirements of flag state, operate fast rescue craft, cargo operations and fire coordination. Crane operators run cranes for lifting cargo around the platform. Scaffolders manage scaffold building when workers are required to work at heights. Coxwains maintain the lifeboats. The catering crew handle cooking and laundry. Production techs run the production plant. Helicopter pilots navigate between the platform and the shore during crew relief or changes. Maintenance technicians manage instrumentation, electrical and mechanical systems and processes.

This offshore operations platform should require the deployment of a Disaster Recovery Plan in order to empower the staff  the moment critical problems begin to escalate. At a minimum, the Disaster Recovery Plan should provide for de-commissioning the platform based upon a hierarchy of known emergency conditions in the oil industry, as well as pre-defined criteria of the Minerals Management Service , the Department of  Energy and relevant Gulf  State authorities. There may be times when empty oil transporters will be required to store oil recovered/reprocessed  from a substantial oil leak. 

Disaster recovery planning for records and information should anticipate ways of preventing or mitigating the loss of vital records and continuous operations. This step may be done by maintaining data redundancy in the installation. The plan should anticipate what preparatory steps are necessary to mitigate loss and return to normal operations. The necessary systems, processes and equipment should be set forth to ensure business continuity.

A substantial loss of an oil offshore platform due to a major hurricane, tsunami or earthquake incident will require considerable de-commissioning of operations utilizing multi-level shut-off capabilities, sensors , systems and manned/unmanned underwater vehicles. 

The recovery includes the implementation of short-term activities which restore vital records and continuous operations on the oil rig platform. This phase includes damage assessment , stabilization and salvage assessment, restoration of records, information and equipment, and continuation of operations. 

The prevention/mitigation phase involves: establishing a vital records program, completing risk management processes, and developing a disaster prevention and recovery plan.

The primary phases are:

1. The development, deployment and rehearsal of the disaster recovery plan and sequential steps necessary to return to normal operations.

2. Empowering teams of people to respond to the disaster in order to mitigate damage to property , loss of  life and the major disruption of ongoing operations.

3. Establish control over the emergency leading to a rational return to normal operations.

4. Ask how did the disaster happen , what lessons can be learned for the future and update the disaster recovery plan accordingly.

The New Madrid earthquake fault is proximate to Louisville, which follows near the Mississippi River and the Kentucky border, Missouri, Illinois, Tennessee, Arkansas and Mississippi. 

Three powerful earthquakes shook the region near New Madrid, Mo., in the winter of 1811 for 54 days into 1812.

The quakes caused extensive landslides and disrupted river commerce. No major quake activity has been problematic since in this area.

The practice of rig mechanics consists of analysis of forces on the rig floor and the wellbore (MOHR, tension, compression, shear), mechanical advantage, management of a complex system of levers, gears and pulleys, fluid mechanics and management of hydrostatic pressure, buoyuancy turbulance and friction. Daily rig operations consist of well control, casing/cementing, pipe tallies, hole cleaning, mixing drilling fluids, determining pump liner requirements, directional drilling and various sundry activities. 

The Minerals Management Service is in existence to manage the ocean energy and mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf. Sometimes, uncontrolled pressure emanates from the well. This pressure can precipitate large accidents. The prevention of these accidents is a regulatory issue according to Frederic Hauge, a head of Bellona, one of the leading environmental groups in Norway. 

From a technological vantagepoint, the issue involves an orderly anticipation of uncontrolled pressure via preventive maintenance and more advanced de-commissioning techniques to mitigate these events in a real time environment. Preventive maintenance can happen by reference to an assessment of the MBTF or Mean Time Between Failures of key equipment.  Another possibility for anticipating uncontrolled pressure is by running the offshore oil rig equipment well below 100% capacity. The practice of increasing productivity to make up for lost productivity should not be allowed in practice or , if ever allowed, the monitoring and ongoing maintenance should be considerable.

The optimum operating level, utilization and capacity for offshore oil platforms represent considerable judgments by the Offshore Installations Manager, Offshore Operations Engineer, senior management, the Department of Engineering and relevant governmental agencies and regulatory requirements. 

Artificial intelligence "Advice Giving" systems have the capability to aggregate the advice of experts on a centralized knowledge base maintained by a knowledge engineer.  The knowledge engineer liaisons with a community of experts and centralizes their advice on a knowledge base. In this case, the advice and judgments of a community of Offshore Installations Managers, Offshore Operations Engineers and other experts would be polled by the knowledge engineer. Their advice and judgments would be maintained on an artificial intelligence "Advice Giving" system. 

Organizationally, the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors oversees the financial and IT auditors, the public accounting firm and the internal auditors of the energy service company. The Committee is composed of independent members from a plethora of industries, as well as some representatives from the energy industrial sector. The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors is an independent entity which operates outside of the traditional hierarchical organization. This Committee reviews audit results and makes hiring decisions with respect to both internal and external financial and IT auditors.  The IT auditors have the responsibility for reviewing the data center installations, contingency planning and disaster recovery plans.

The United States District Court in Middle District Tennessee opined on the need for an independentBoard of Directors in a landmark pension case. This ruling is important because audit resources are approved bythe Audit Committee of the Board of Directors .  Independent audits and recommendations for corrective action flow from the firm internal, external auditors, financial and IT auditors.  Details follow:

The United States District Court, Middle District Tenn. made some very important observations on strengthening corporate governance. These recommendations have very important ramifications for all corporate entities.  Readers should pay close attention to what the Court said about independence and auditing.  The details of the case and the recommendations are listed below:

Columbia/HCA Derivative Litigation (McCall v. Scott)

Court:    United States District Court, Middle District of Tennessee

Case Number:      97-cv-838

Judge:    Hon. Thomas A. Higgins

Case Contacts:    Max W. Berger, Avi Josefson

This is a derivative action filed on behalf of Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corporation (now known as HCA Inc.) against certain former senior executives and current and former members of HCA's Board of Directors seeking to cause HCA to reform its corporate governance processes, and to hold the defendants responsible for directing or enabling HCA to commit the largest healthcare fraud in U.S. history. The firm represents the New York State Common Retirement Fund, the California Public Employees' Retirement System ("CalPERS"), the New York City Pension Funds, the New York State Teachers' Retirement System and the Los Angeles County  Employees' Retirement Association ("LACERA"). 

Although the district court initially dismissed the action, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed that dismissal and upheld the complaint in substantial part, and remanded the case back to the district court. 

On February 4, 2003, New York State Comptroller, the sole trustee of the New York State Common Retirement Fund, announced that the parties had agreed in principle to settle the action, subject to approval of the district court.  As part of the settlement, HCA will adopt a corporate governance plan that goes well beyond the requirements both of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and of the rules that the New York Stock Exchange has proposed to the SEC, and also enhances the corporate governance structure presently in place at HCA.  HCA also will receive $14 million.  Under the sweeping governance plan,the HCA Board of Directors will be substantially independent, and will have increased power and responsibility to oversee fair and accurate financial reporting. 

Some of the more significant provisions are:

o Two-thirds of the Board of Directors must be independent.  In addition to not having been employed by the Corporation in the last five years, an independent director must not have performed any significant consulting work for HCA within the last five years.  Independent Directors may retain legal counsel and other consultants to advise them. The entire Board, or appropriate committees consisting entirely of independent directors, will monitor internal control and corporate compliance. 

o HCA's Audit Committee will be comprised solely of independent directors and have at least two members with accounting or financial experience.  The Audit Committee must also meet with management and the external auditors prior to the filing of each annual report and quarterly report.

o The external auditing firm must be rotated every seven years unless the Audit Committee affirmatively determines that rotation is not in the Company's best interests.  This determination must be made every three years.

o Candidates for election or re-election to the Company's Board are restricted in the number of other company boards on which may serve.

o Specific internal control and corporate compliance responsibilities, including specific procedures in the event the Board becomes aware of any material departure from corporate compliance programs or internal control programs, or of material violations of established corporate policies or legal and regulatory requirements.

o Shareholders must be given the opportunity to vote on the issuance of any equity compensation to any executive who, at the time of such issuance, is one of the Company's five highest paid executives, unless the equity compensation is issued pursuant to a plan previously approved by the Company's shareholders.

o Heightened Core Competencies, which must be considered in connection with election and the re-election of directors.

There is no waiting period for the implementation of the enhanced provisions; they become effective immediately upon the Effective Date of the settlement.

In granting final approval of the settlement on June 3, 2003, the Honorable Senior Judge Thomas A. Higgins of the District Court said that the settlement "confers an exceptional benefit upon the company and the shareholders by way of thecorporate governance plan."

Oil Spill 2010: Disaster Recovery Plan Needed

Oil Spill 2010: Planning For Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Cleanup

Oil Spill 2010: Clean Up And Recovery Patented Ideas

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he blogs and reviews many books for Basil & Spice. Visit the Joseph S. Maresca Writer's Page.

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<![CDATA[ Alternative Energies]]> By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

A Presidential Call to Action on the Gulf Cleanup and An Energy Transition from Fossil Fuels   6- 16- 2010

Last night, President Obama reported to the nation on particulars of the oil spill cleanup in the Gulf. Oil continues to spill from one mile underwater, although 90% of the leaked oil will be captured. The goal is that by summer's end, the leak will cease. Approximately 17,000 National Guard’s people are working across 4 states. The process of burning and skimming oil continues. There will be new barrier islands constructed, as well as additional booms. The aim is to recover and restore the Gulf to its original beauty. A fund will be established under independent control of a 3rd party.

Efforts are under way to ensure that an incident like this will never occur again. A National Commission will be established to investigate the causes of the explosion on April 20, 2010. The President would like to know all the relevant facts of the current spill prior to allowing any more drilling offshore. The Minerals Management Service was criticized for creating an atmosphere hostile to regulation. In effect, oil companies wrote their own regulations according to the President.

The drilling for offshore oil poses greater risks. The drilling goes on because we are running out of places to drill on land. The consequences of our inaction are readily determinable. Nonetheless, there must be a rational transition from fossil fuels to alternative energies via efficient windows, wind energy and clean energy technologies. The President emphasized that clean energy is profitable and that thousands of good jobs will flow from the effort. The long term costs of not pursuing clean energy will impact our economy, security and environment. The President referenced the "Blessing of the Fleet" which anticipates safety and success for seabound travelers. We all look forward with strength, courage and the prospect of attaining something better. We will.

Critique

______

Overall, the President's speech addressed the major areas. The oil spill will be cleaned up via a continuing process of drilling relief wells, burning, skimming and loading empty tankers with recoverable oil, as was done by Aramco.

What caused the spill? Most likely, unchecked leaking gas precipitated the crisis. Testimony has surfaced in dribbles which indicates that key personnel knew of the oncoming dangers well in advance of the explosion. How do we prevent a future recurrence? Simply put, we decommission the offshore drilling at the first signs of classic troubles like gas leaks. Anticipatory repairs and maintenance can be done to lessen the likelihood of a catastrophic event like the April 20th spill. There are artificial intelligence systems in place to centralize expert advice for entry onto the knowledge base by the knowledge engineer.

Cloud computing is available to assist in centralizing data on a company level and even an industry level. There are methodologies in place to manage trouble escalation more rationally.

These methodologies are:

o Mean Time Between Failure for anticipatory repairs- most engineered equipment has a pre-defined failure threshold

o Contingency Planning and rehearsals to lessen the downside of out-of-the-norm events that come up routinely

o Disaster Recovery Planning and rehearsals to place the most effective strategies in place before an exigency occurs like a hurricane

o Monitoring offshore drilling productivity for signs of operating at or over 100% capacity

o Reviewing new patent art for offshore drilling to take full advantage of new technologies and techniques.  i.e. gas leak detection patents

o Special studies on offshore drilling forces of nature like Mohrs circle, compressive and tension forces

There was a call for more rigorous regulatory reform. First, let's look at what the UK has in place.

UK Offshore Safety Regulations

There are 4 sets of UK regulations which are applicable to this particular sector and BP when operating in the UK. 

They are:

a) The Offshore Installation (Safety Case) Regulations 1992 -  all mobile and fixed offshore installations which operate in UK waters must have a safety case which requires that all safety critical elements on installations must be approved by the Health and Safety Executive

b) The Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 -These regulations are aimed at protecting offshore workers from fire and explosions. In addition, proper procedures are to be in place to provide a rapid response from emergency services should a fire or explosion occur.

c) The Offshore Installation and Pipeline Works (Management and Administration) Regulations 1995 - is aimed at the safe management of offshore installations, generally.

d) The Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc) Regulations 1996 - are concerned with the safety of offshore and onshore wells, the integrity of installations and the overall safety of the offshore working environment.  Source: UK Offshore Regulations

The alternative energy technologies are progressing on every level.  i.e. institutional, entrepreneurial and governmental in places like China. The "Artificial Sun" is aimed at producing virtual power. Solar, ocean wave and geothermal energies are aimed at utilizing nature to produce power. Coal gasification is an upcoming alternative as is shale, zig-zag drilling and the Bakken properties.  Natural gas is another popular alternative for implementation in autos and elsewhere. Certain biofuels like oils produced by plants and algae are a product of photosynthesis.  Waste treatment, fermentation and reuse of restaurant grease/cooking oils hold promise for the future. The smart power grid and hybrid cars are growing areas.

There is a marvelous partnership between Chrysler and A123 Systems for the development of a high-energy lithium battery for automobiles made by Fiat. A $2B stimulus loan from the Advanced Technology Manufacturing Incentive Program is targeted at building plants to manufacture the new lithium car batteries built by A 123 Systems.

Grama and White studied how milk was made in India. Then, they proceeded to blend Grama's knowledge of Thermodynamics with advances in photovoltaics. The pair looks forward to manufacturing solar powered refrigerators run by simple microprocessors. The solar cooler could preserve cow's milk, yogurt and medicines in villages throughout the world lacking electricity.

Saturn's orange moon Titan has hundreds of times more liquid hydrocarbons than all the known oil and natural gas reserves on Earth. (NASA's Cassini spacecraft). Admittedly, aggressive exploration of Saturn is the work of the next century. We must anticipate the next century now because the earth will have 10 billion people by that time.

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he blogs and reviews many books for Basil & Spice. Visit the Joseph S. Maresca Writer's Page.

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<![CDATA[ Disaster Planning Response]]> By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

New BP Cap Stems Oil Flow in Gulf for Now    August 15, 2010

BP Engineers are running a series of tests to determine seismic activity and pressure after the successful installation of a cap stems the flow of oil in the Gulf. These pressurized tests will take some time to complete; however, small businesses along the Louisiana coastline are quietly optimistic about the possibility of returning to business at some future time. BP stock rose 7.5% today due to the good news.

The most obvious question is whether or not offshore drilling permits should commence as before the spill. The November, 2010 date has been mentioned publicly; however, a number of technical issues remain before permits could be considered.

For instance, a determination needs to be made as to which offshore drilling operations should be de-commissioned permanently due to aging equipment, gas leaks, emergency shutdowns or other critical incidents. There are patents which deal with gas leak detection. i.e.

Patent art exists for detecting an influx of gas into a marine riser of an oil rig.  US Patent 5163029 was designed for this purpose. In accordance with the present invention, several methods are presented for the detection of gas into an offshore marine riser  (e.g., riser gas). In a first embodiment of this invention, an acoustic transmitter is positioned on or nearby the subsea blowout preventor stack and imparts continuous low frequency waves into the annular fluid in the marine riser. These imparted waves define pressure perturbations which are received by a pressure transducer positioned on the riser at a location above the acoustic transmitter. Gas detection in the riser is then indicated by determining the rate of change of certain characteristics of the output.  The output characteristics are preferably the moduli and phase angles of the acoustic fundamentals and their harmonics.

The industry itself needs to determine whether or not supplemental self-regulation is in order. There are possibilities. For instance, a consortia of companies could centralize trouble management under the umbrella of cloud computing or mega-datacenters. This action would centralize data and provide for standardized data processing and protocols. The use of artificial intelligence "Advice Giving" systems could aggregate the advice of offshore engineering experts collected by the knowledge engineer. Advanced Trouble Management Systems could be employed to rank routine engineering problems by criticality. The most critical incidents like gas leaks would be addressed first by local engineers and government policymakers.

Offshore Drilling productivity is another issue which the industry and government must address. Running the offshore drilling equipment beyond 100% capacity should be disallowed under any conditions. In addition, engineering maintenance at the offshore drilling site must be more rigorous and supplemental funds should be made available to promote the same.

There needs to be a better response to routine exigencies by employment of "Contingency Planning" and "Disaster Recovery Planning."  In addition, offshore drilling companies must employ more sophisticated manned and unmanned underwater vehicles to facilitate routine maintenance and anticipatory maintenance.

The Energy Department and other federal / state agencies must investigate the feasibility of coordinating routine and unannounced tests of offshore facility operations, contingency planning and disaster recovery planning.

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is a global treaty governing the offshore drilling activities. In 2002, the treaty was accepted by 138 countries including the United States. The treaty addresses environmental concerns related to offshore drilling. Major features of the Convention include navigational rights, territorial sea limits, economic jurisdiction, legal status of resources on the seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, passage of ships through narrow straits, conservation and management of living marine resources, protection of the marine environment, a marine research protocol and a binding procedure for the settlement of disputes between States. All offshore drilling in the United States and elsewhere should comply with the letter of this treaty, as well as the spirit of its intended benefits to member nations.

After The Cleanup: Future Clean Energy Sources

2011 And Beyond: Contingency Oil Rig Disaster Operations

Oil Spill 2010: Disaster Recovery Plan Needed

Oil Spill 2010: Planning For Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Cleanup

NOAA, BP Work To Contain Oil Spill

Oil Spill 2010: Clean Up And Recovery Patented Ideas

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he blogs and reviews many books for Basil & Spice. Visit the Joseph S. Maresca Writer's Page.

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<![CDATA[ Oil Spill Cleanup and Recovery]]> By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

April 2010 BP Gulf Oil Spill- Mid-August Status Issued 8-15- 2010

The Skytruth Oil Spill Tracker showed the following improvements from a visual inspection of a map depicting the major areas of the spill with both small and large red dots. During May 2010, there were 3 large red dots on the map in the New Orleans area, 1 large red dot in Sarasota, Florida and a smaller dot just North of Havana.

By August, the initial 3 large dots in the New Orleans area were reduced to much smaller red Padre Island National Seashore - Kemps Ridley Sea Turtle (Wikipedia)dots. The large red dot in Sarasota, Florida was reduced to a smaller one and the small dot just above Havana disappeared. There are still some scattered smaller dots throughout the Gulf region.

John Amos of Skytruth indicated that 1 subsurface of oil washed ashore on Alabama beaches 8-12-2010 nearly 1 month after the well was capped. Currently, BP continues work to finish the relief wells in order to seal the gusher for good.

Scientists from NOAA’s Damage Assessment Remediation and Restoration Program (DARRP) mobilized resources quickly in the Gulf.  The NOAA team collected data from pre-oiled and oiled natural resources. This information is critical to the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process.

Data collected in the Gulf will help determine whether or not natural resources have been injured and what human uses have been impaired. Once the injuries and losses have been quantified, NOAA and its partners will work to compensate the public by restoring, rehabilitating, or replacing the natural resources damaged by the oil spill.

Work by federal and state partners under the Oil Pollution Act is currently in the preassessment phase to determine whether or not injury to public natural resources has occurred and the extent of the same.

Species with essential fish habitat near the oil spill include: scalloped hammerhead, shortfin mako,  silky, whale, bigeye thresher, longfin mako, and oceanic whitetip sharks; swordfish, white marlin, blue marlin, yellowfin tuna, bluefin tuna, longbill spearfish, and sailfish.  Other important fish in the Gulf include red snapper, grouper, gray triggerfish, red drum, vermilion snapper, greater amberjack, black drum, cobia and dolphin (mahi-mahi), coastal migratory pelagic (open water) species, such as king and Spanish mackerel, and pelagic sharks. Shellfish in the Gulf include oysters and several species of shrimp and crabs.  Of the 28 species of marine mammals known to live in the Gulf of Mexico, all are protected and six (sperm, sei, fin, blue, humpback and North Atlantic right whales) are listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act.

At least four species of threatened/endangered sea turtles (Kemp’s Ridley, green, leatherback, and loggerhead) are residents of the northern Gulf of Mexico and are represented by all life stages. A fifth species, the hawksbill turtle, can be found in the southern Gulf. The only nesting beaches in the world for Kemp’s Ridley turtles are in the western Gulf of Mexico.

Marshes in the Gulf of Mexico provide extremely important habitat for feeding and nesting of several species that can be found in offshore waters, such as royal terns and gulls.  Species of concern include near shore and marsh birds: brown pelican, diving ducks, wading birds, piping plover (a threatened species) and pelagic (open water) birds such as shearwaters, northern gannets, and frigate birds.  Marine mammals, fish, and birds depend on clean, healthy habitats to provide food, shelter, and breeding grounds. These habitats include salt and fresh water marshes, mangroves, mudflats, beaches, coral and shellfish reefs, water column and bottom sediments.  (ADAPTED FROM DARRP, NOAA)

Currently, BP claims that they are doing everything possible. "We continue to seal the Macondo well permanently, clean up the environment, and make sure that people are compensated for legitimate claims." BP Completed a Well Pressure Test with results under review right now.  More than 23k people, 3k vessels & 800 skimmers are at work responding to the oil spill.  Following comprehensive FDA testing, the Louisiana Dept of Wildlife & Fisheries reopened some state waters to fishing.

Offshore Drilling, Disaster Planning Response

After The Cleanup: Future Clean Energy Sources

2011 And Beyond: Contingency Oil Rig Disaster Operations

Oil Spill 2010: Disaster Recovery Plan Needed

Oil Spill 2010: Planning For Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Cleanup

Oil Spill 2010: Clean Up And Recovery Patented Ideas

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he blogs and reviews many books for Basil & Spice. Visit the Joseph S. Maresca Writer's Page.

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<![CDATA[ United States Federal Debt Compared to Other Nations]]> By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca

The comparative debt figures from 1792 to 2010 are listed at:  www.usgovernmentspending.com/federal_debt_chart.html

The Gross Public Debt as a percentage of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) began at about 35% in 1792. The gross public debt reached a low point of 5.8% as a percentage of GDP in 1812 and 1813 during the term of James Madison of the Democratic-Republican Party. His most outstanding achievement was demilitarizing the US-Canadian border.

The Gross Domestic Product encompasses goods and services that have been bought for final use during a period of time. GDP covers workers and capital employed within the nation's borders.

The gross public debt remained in single digits from 1826-1862. In 1863, the gross public debt rose to 14.7% of the GDP and then to 27% of the GDP in 1865. The gross public debt was reduced to single digits again in 1892 and 1898- 1917. The gross public debt rose to double digits as a percentage of GDP in every year after 1917.

The Gross Public Debt rose to 121% of GDP in 1946 and dropped steadily to 32% by 1975. The millennium began with the Gross Public Debt at 57% of the GDP and closed at 94% of the GDP in 2010. This year's Gross Public Debt at 94% is still well below the 121% in 1946 circa the end of  World War 2.  Our economic history shows that the public debt tends to increase quite considerably during wartime.

Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Australia have a Public Sector Deficit as a % of GDP at or below 50% compared to the USA at 94%.  Greece, Italy and Japan have a Public Sector Deficit as a % of GDP over 114%. Japan's Public Sector Deficit as a % of GDP hovers around an incredible 200%!

http://europe.pimco.com/LeftNav/Featured+Mar...ss+The+Ring+of+Fire.htm

Joseph S. Maresca Ph.D., CPA, CISA, MBA: His significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences. He holds membership in the prestigious Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society and Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society.  In addition, he blogs and reviews many books for Basil & Spice. Visit the Joseph S. Maresca Writer's Page.






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Thanks for taking the time to discuss this, I feel strongly about it and love learning more on this topic. If possible, as you gain expertise, would you mind updating your blog with more information? It is extremely helpful for me.
September 22, 2010 | Unregistered Commenteractors biographies
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