This is a first contact story between humans and well, humans.
All really good science fiction stories create some kind of out of this world conditions which create some kind of strange background conditions against which the characters interact and each other. Depending on the story this can be a great thought experiment or it might just be a propaganda platform for the author. Voyage from Yesteryear could be either one but it is both interesting and entertaining. Curiously it duplicates a situation from a well known SF short story, And Then There Were None by Eric Frank Russell. But Russell's short story does not explain how the anarchist society comes about it only describes how the people behave in a quite humorous manner.
Earth launched a space ship in 2020 to explore other stars. But it also carried frozen embryos and robot nannies to raise them so they created a new kind of culture started by kids raised by robots with no adults for bad examples. So these kids grew up becoming, Charonians, without any Earth traditions. But Earth sends out another ship in 2060 to arrive in 2080. But the second ship takes live people all of the way, raised on Earth in the usual manner and more are born on the trip.
So the story is about the cultural conflict between "normal" humans and neo-humans who never had to put up with any traditional Earth culture. That is how it becomes a thought experiment on the part of James P. Hogan and the reader gets to critique his experiment. The Chronians turn out to be completely different from anything the new arrivals can imagine.
So the story raises the question of should we let our stupid cultures control our futures or could we become Charonians without leaving the planet. So is WikiLeaks an example of a new Anarchist Revolution?