JOINT MIDDLE EAST PEACE INITIATIVE OF ISRAEL, THE PALESTINIANS AND OTHER STRATEGIC CONSTITUENCIES AND BOUNDARY-SPANNING ORGANIZATIONS/ENTITIES By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca
The State of Israel and the Palestinians are on another historic journey which may lead to peace despite temporary setbacks from time to time. The ultimate settlement between Israel and the Palestinians will require a consensus of the parties and cooperation from neighboring states. Moving the agenda forward may mean sanctions for non-cooperating parties like Iran or others.
"We will not build all of the tens of thousands of residential units that are in the planning stages," Netanyahu said, according to reports by Israeli news. "But we will not freeze the lives of the residents of Judea and Samaria and we will not freeze construction."
At a conference entitled "The Sea as an Economic Resource," Shimon Peres said that Israel should stop investing in Judea and Samaria and; instead , build artificial islands in the Mediterranean . The author concurs with some important environmental and legal provisos/clarifications. In addition, there are possibilities for constructing the "Artificial Sun" together with desalination plants off the Mediterranean Sea along Israel's entire coastline, as well as the Dead Sea. There are legal implications to clarify as well. These are documented in a recent World Court decision. Remember that an "artificial island" may not per se be "naturally formed" for international legal purposes.
World Court Digest II. Substantive International Law - Second Part 2. LAW OF THE SEA 2.7. Islands / Low-tide elevations
A Case Concerning Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Question between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahrain) Judgment of 16 March 2001 [p. 99] 195. The World Court recalls that the legal definition of an island is "a naturally formed area of land, surrounded by water, which is above water"
QUOTE: 205. International treaty law is silent on the question whether low-tide elevations can be considered to be "territory". Nor is the Court aware of a uniform and widespread State practice which might have given rise to a customary rule which unequivocally permits or excludes appropriation of low-tide elevations. It is only in the context of the law of the sea that a number of permissive rules have been established with regard to low-tide elevations which are situated at a relatively short distance from a coast.
206. The few existing rules do not justify a general assumption that low-tide elevations are territory in the same sense as islands. It has never been disputed that islands constitute terra firma, and are subject to the rules and principles of territorial acquisition; the difference in effects which the law of the sea attributes to islands and low-tide elevations is considerable. It is thus not established that in the absence of other rules and legal principles, low-tide elevations can, from the viewpoint of the acquisition of sovereignty, be fully assimilated with islands or other land territory.
207. In this respect the Court recalls the rule that a low-tide elevation which is situated beyond the limits of the erritorial sea does not have a territorial sea of its own. A low-tide elevation, therefore, as such does not generate the same rights as islands or other territory. Moreover, it is generally recognized and implicit in the words of the relevant provisions of the Conventions on the Law of the Sea that, whereas a low-tide elevation which is situated within the limits of the territorial sea may be used for the determination of its breadth, this does not hold for a low-tide elevation which is situated less than 12 nautical miles from that low-tide elevation but is beyond the limits of the territorial sea. The law of the sea does not in these circumstances allow application of the so-called "leap-frogging" method. In this respect it is irrelevant whether the coastal State has treated such a low-tide elevation as its property and carried out some governmental acts with regard to it; it does not generate a territorial sea.
Aside from artificial islands, vast monorail systems could be created to transport the Palestinians over select parts of Israeli territories. There are extensive technologies like "cloud computing" to provide support for municipal accounting systems for the West Bank and Gaza. Artificial intelligence and "Advice Giving" systems could provide technical support for the delivery of medical care throughout the Palestinian territories. The current Israeli Kibbutz working group model could provide a forum for matching workers with potential employers or major contractors of corporate or other entities. The Palestinians could emulate a governing structure conceptually similar to Jordan.
Every proposal is referred to a committee of the lower house for consideration and action. If it is approved, a governmental process is in place for submission to the Chamber of Deputies. If approved by this House, it is referred to the Senate for debate and an up or down vote. With Senate approval, the King can either grant consent or refuse. Ultimately, both houses can pass a bill by a two-thirds majority thereby becoming an Act of Parliament overriding the King’s veto.
In Immigrant Inc. by Herman and Smith, Wiley 2010 , the authors describe a new method of commercialization for thermodynamic properties of refrigeration. Grama and White studied how milk was made in India. Then, they proceeded to blend Grama's knowledge of Thermodynamics with advances in photovoltaics. The pair looks forward to manufacturing solar powered refrigerators run by simple microprocessors. The solar cooler could preserve cow's milk, yogurt and medicines in villages throughout the world lacking electricity. By extension, the same benefit could be provided for the Palestinians.
The Grameen Bank lends $100 million dollars a month in collateral free loans averaging $200 apiece . The repayment rate is an astounding 98%. A similar financing arrangement could be provided for the Palestinians and supported with assistance from the 57 Nations of the Arab League and the West.
Yunus guarantees loans to the poor ; thereby acting as an intermediary. This is not much different from the USA government guaranteeing certain loans to borrowers. The result is that bankers are much more willing to lend money due to the guaranteed payment. Borrowers repay in small weekly amounts. Women have great drive to overcome poverty.
Artificial islands and installations are man-made, surrounded by water from all sides, above the water at high tide, supposed to stay at a specific geographical location for certain periods of time and stationary in their normal modus operandi at sea.
By the law of the sea and the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) , artificial islands have little legal implications, especially as far as the measurement of the maritime zones are concerned. The Artificial Islands are not considered to be permanent harbor works. This means that the coastal state cannot claim the same rights that have been provided for the permanent harbor works in the determination of the baseline and measurement of maritime zones.
Article 11 of the UNCLOS 1982, provides: "for the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea, the outmost permanent harbor works which form an integral part of the harbor system, are regarded as forming part of the coast. Off-shore installations and artificial islands shall not be considered as permanent harbor works."
The UAE possesses some 60 square kilometers of the Persian Gulf islands. According to Sultan Bin Salim, the project manager of the World Islands, the UAE's island area increased to 1200 kilometers. The construction of these artificial islands will not only entail environmental degradation, but also may alter the geopolitics of the Persian Gulf. The Persian Gulf is home to many species and biodiverse forms of life . Over 500 fish, shrimp, and rare turtle species inhabit the area . Experts in international organizations have warned against the destruction of Dubai's sole coral coast and coastal nests of turtles in the initial phases of this project. They have also warned about the change in the quality of the Persian Gulf waters.
There are possibilities to utilize the Dead Sea for artificial islands, as well as salt and mineral cultivation like in ancient times. The Dead Sea has attracted visitors from around the Mediterranean basin for thousands of years. Biblically, it was a refuge for King David. It was one of the world's first health resorts for Herod the Great , and it has been a supplier of a wide variety of products, from balms for Egyptian mummification to potash for fertilizer companies . People also use the salt and the minerals from the Dead Sea to create cosmetics and herbal preparations .
The United States Patent Office now has filings which deal exclusively with artificial islands and designs/processes which support ongoing operations utilizing known technologies. i.e.
The Man-made island resort complex with surface and underwater entertainment, educational and lodging facilities United States Patent 7036449
Inventors: Sutter, Kimberly Michelle
A self-sufficient man-made island complex having a plurality of interconnected islands housing a theme resort simulating a tropical paradise in which the guests have a multitude of activities in which they interact and learn about nature and particularly marine life. Lodging and entertainment facilities are located both on the surface and underwater.
A primary object of the present invention is to provide an environmentally friendly nature-based theme park on a plurality of synthetic islands.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a man-made island resort complex that has a plethora of activities and exhibits that are both surface based and underwater.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a man-made island resort complex having a plethora of activities and exhibits that are educational and fun.
Still yet another object of the present invention is to provide a man-made island resort complex that is operated entirely using natural resources.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a man-made island resort complex that may be transported to other locations.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a man-made island resort complex that is handicap and pet friendly.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a man-made island resort complex that is simple and easy to use.
Still yet another object of the present invention is to provide a man-made island resort complex that is inexpensive to manufacture and operate.
Additional objects of the present invention will appear as the description proceeds.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
The following discussion describes in detail one embodiment of the invention (and several variations of that embodiment). This discussion should not be construed, however, as limiting the invention to those particular embodiments, practitioners skilled in the art will recognize numerous other embodiments as well. For definition of the complete scope of the invention, the reader is directed to the appended claims.
FIG. 1 is an illustrative view of the present invention 10 . The present invention 10 is a man made island complex providing a plurality of facilities 16 including under water guest quarters 64 , an under water monorail 146 , under water spa 246 , an under water restaurant 254 , open ocean marine life wonders and a plurality of above water facilities which may be located off of the main island 22 and accessed by an arched bridge 336 with angel figurines acting as waterfalls. Also including six dolphin shaped hotels 30 with penthouses 36 , bungalows 50 , a waterfall 268 that leads to a pool 266 , game courts, a church 342 , a planetarium 286 , restaurants 248 , 254 , 276 , 358 , a 24 hour BBQ 380 , state of the art gym 388 , full golf course 110 , an airport 110 and much more. All islands and facilities are handicap and animal friendly. Emergency back up power and other safety features are also provided throughout the resort.
Bibliography __________ 1. Herman and Smith, Immigrant Inc. Wiley 2010 2. Dr. Muhammad Yunus, Building Social Business 2010 3. A Case Concerning Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Question between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahrain) Judgment of 16 March 2001 -The World Court [p. 99] 195 4. Sutter, Kimberly Michelle , The Man-made Island Resort Complex With Surface and Underwater Entertainment, Educational and Lodging Facilities - United States Patent 7036449
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Dr. Joseph S. Maresca holds a PhD, a Certified Public Accountancy and a Certified Information System Auditor. In addition, he has completed graduate and post-graduate work for an MBA in Accountancy, an Advanced Professional Certificate in Computer Applications/Information Systems, an APC in Finance and an Advanced Professional Certificate in Organizational Development/ Design and Behavior at New York University. In addition, he has passed the Engineering in Training Examination,
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